www.corpun.com   :  Country files   :  Current school handbooks -- page 8

Corporal punishment regulations of individual schools

External links to present-day school handbooks

With comments by C. Farrell

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  • Glenvale Christian School, Toowoomba, Queensland
    In the application for enrolment at this K-6 school, parents must sign that they authorise staff to act in loco parentis and this "shall specifically include the use of corporal punishment".


  • Bahamas Academy, Nassau
    See page 27. CP (details not specified) may be used as a last resort at this school run by Seventh-day Adventists, but "certain disruptive behaviour may warrant corporal punishment as an immediate measure". Its use must be authorised by the Principal.

  • Mary E. Albury High School, Abaco
    Caning may be administered here for "major infractions" and "serious infractions".

  • Temple Christian School, Nassau This K-12 school "reserves the right to discipline any disruptive student, as it deems necessary. This includes assigning demerits and detentions, counselling, the use of the strap/paddle (by the Principal, Vice Principal or Dean of Students), suspension or expulsion."
     At enrolment, parents must sign that "I understand that the school reserves the right to administer corporal punishment to my child in a fair manner, should the need arise."

  • These Bahamas schools are known to have used corporal punishment in the past, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or are not on line at all:

    L.W. Young Junior High School -- see this June 2008 news item


  • Student Code of Discipline
    Document produced in 2004 by the Barbados Ministry of Education for all schools. It quotes Education Regulation 18(j), which "makes provision for principals to administer corporal punishment when necessary". The document lays down three levels of offences from level 1 (tardiness, disrespect, littering, dress code) to level 3 (assault, vandalism, forgery). CP is one of the disciplinary options at all three levels.

  • Combermere School, Bridgetown
    "Corporal punishment is administered infrequently by the Principal, Deputy Principal, and Year Heads."


  • Akosombo International School
    At this co-educational boarding school run by the Volta River Authority, with two satellite schools at Akuse and Aboadze, "Persistent nuisance will be punished with caning not exceeding six strokes". Nuisance is defined as making unnecessary noise.

  • Ancilla Catholic Primary and Junior High School, Haatso
    "The policy of the school is to avoid caning students. However, it reserves the right to do so sparingly where it believes it is necessary in the interest of the child."

  • Angels Specialist School International, Tema
    "Other disciplinary measure, such as caning, dismissal etc. will be determined by the school authority."

  • Calvary Hillcrest Schools, Cape Coast
    Caning may be administered for lateness, lying, fighting, bullying, quarrelling/teasing, flouting authority, assault, failure to do homework, and profanity.

  • Christ Goodness Education Centre, Kumasi
    Exactly the same wording as at Calvary Hillcrest (see above).

  • Christ The King International School, Accra New!
    "Corporal punishment and counselling" is the penalty for a second pornography offence, and for a first tobacco or alcohol offence. Disrespect to teachers brings "corporal punishment (flogged by head teacher)". CP is also indicated for any physical or verbal attack and for "refusal to submit to punishment".

  • Janet Educational Complex, Kumasi New!
    Corporal punishment of students "should be administered by the administrator".

  • Mary Mother of Good Counsel School, Accra
    "Discipline measures such as detention, doing manual work and corporal punishment, suspension or expulsion may become necessary for certain offences."

  • West Africa Senior High School, Adenta, Greater Accra
    At this big school for boys and girls aged 14 to 18, CP is prescribed for several offences. Any student who steals "shall be caned and, where necessary, have his/her name disclosed to the student body". Students who are repeatedly late "may be caned, if need be". "Manual work or caning" is the penalty for taking unofficial short cuts to or from the school premises.

  • Yaa Asantewaa Girls' Senior High School, Kumasi
    Caning is the penalty for a first offence of flouting teacher's authority, and of possessing a mobile phone.


  • Boca Secondary School, St George's
    CP here is called "flogging". It is "applicable to all form levels" and must be administered in the principal's office. Flogging is particularly mentioned for fighting, obscenity, gambling, smoking, alcohol, not giving maximum respect to teachers, and being in school but absent from class. In forms 1 to 3 it is also the consequence for not serving detention.



  • Almasi School, Nairobi
    "Biblical Correction" here involves the use of a simple, flat paddle, max. five firm strokes. Both parents must sign that they support this.


Note: "SMK" means a state secondary school.

  • IBL World School, Kulai, Johore
    This English-medium private school includes elementary (age 7-12) and secondary (age 13-16) levels. "Depending on the severity of the offence, male students will be given up to three strokes of the cane on the buttocks. Female students will not be caned but the school reserves the right to determine on [sic] the appropriate course of action."

  • Mara Junior Science College, Kuala Kubu Bahru, Selangor
    Students may be caned for truancy or skipping class.

  • Methodist Boys' Secondary School, Kuala Lumpur
    Students who smoke here receive 10 demerit points and are also caned one, two or three strokes on a rising scale each time the offence is repeated. The penalty for chewing gum is a 10-ringgit fine plus caning. Corporal punishment may also be imposed for theft, gambling, assault, weapons, fighting, bullying, truancy, vandalism, disrespect, cheating, and obscenity, and for being late three times.

  • MRSM Pengkalan Hulu, Perak
    Here there is a maximum of 2 strokes of the cane. For more minor offences, one stroke is given.

  • SK Palong 9, Gemas, Negeri Sembilan
    Caning comes after written warning and before suspension at this primary school.

  • SMKA Durian Guling, Marang, Terengganu
    Only teachers authorised by the Principal are allowed to cane students. Female students may not be caned. The penalty for skipping class ("Ponteng Kelas") for a third time is one stroke of the cane, with two strokes on subsequent occasions. Curiously, there seems to be no mention of smoking.

  • SMK Bukit Garam, Kinabatangan, Sabah (New URL)
    This school's Discipline Unit warns that, with effect from 1 April 2015, students who fail to turn up for school three times in a row will be caned on the buttocks. There is the same escalating 1-2-3 caning tariff for smoking as at other schools, in line with the 1997 Ministry of Education guidelines. For bullying, the punishment is three strokes of the cane on the buttocks.

  • SMK Dato' Bentara Luar, Batu Pahat, Johore
    This document entitled "Peraturan Sekolah" (School rules) says on p.5 "Hukuman rotan adalah sangat berguna dan berkesan apabila dilakukan sebaik-baik sahaja sesuatu salah laku itu dilakukan oleh pelajar" (Caning is a very useful and effective punishment when carried out swiftly following the student's misconduct). On page 35 is set out a "tariff" of caning penalties for smoking: one stroke on the first occasion, two on the second, and three on the third. For a fourth offence, the student is suspended. CP on a similar rising scale applies to some other offences, together with warnings, confiscation of forbidden items, and the payment of fines.

  • SMK Seksyen 19, Shah Alam, Selangor
    This secondary school in a satellite town of Kuala Lumpur mentions caning only in respect of being late for school five times.

  • SMK Taman Perumahan Bedaun, Labuan
    Caning of male students is allowed in private only, not in the classroom or the hall.

  • Sri Kuala Lumpur (Primary & Secondary) School
    This private school reserves the right to take whatever disciplinary action it deems appropriate, which may include caning. The school's FAQs page adds that discipline is "very strong" and clarifies that corporal punishment is for boys only and is applied with parental consent.

  • SRS Datuk Simon Fung, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
    Hit "Misc: Some definitions". At this private school, caning is carried out strictly in private in the office: no canes are allowed in the classroom. A witness must be present.

  • St Joseph's Private School, Kuching, Sarawak
    At this newish (2012) Roman Catholic primary and secondary school, "Corporal punishment e.g. caning" is one of the measures that may be imposed by the Headmaster or his assistant.

  • These Malaysian schools are also known to have used corporal punishment in the past, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or are not on line at all:

    Penang Free School, George Town, Pinang -- see this 2014 video clip
    St John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur -- see these external links
    SMK Siburan, Kuching, Sarawak -- see this Feb 2010 news item


  • Christ Ambassadors' College, Sabon Tasha, Kaduna State
    This mixed-sex secondary boarding school claims to have nearly 3,000 students. An unusual provision is that "If a junior student is rude to a senior, he/she will be [...] given 4 strokes of the cane then be made to apologise to the senior student". For bullying or stealing, the consequence is "6 strokes of the cane at the assembly". Students found fighting "will be given 12 strokes of cane at the assembly and be made to wash toilets". Also, "Any student that insults a teacher will be given 6 strokes of the cane by the vice principal". Corporal punishment is also stipulated for loitering (3 strokes), purchasing during class hours (3 strokes), having electronic appliances (6 strokes), and malpractice in exams (12 strokes plus 2 weeks' suspension).

  • Danbo International College, Barnawa, Kaduna State
    "Students may face corporal punishment" at this mixed-sex secondary school.

  • ECWA Staff School, Jos New!
    "Public flogging (6 strokes)" is the penalty for sexual immorality at this evangelical boarding school. If a female student enters a male hostel or vice versa, they will get "Two weeks suspension, one of which will be spent in the school doing labour during school hours, public apology and 6 strokes of the cane". Cheating in tests incurs "Zero in the subject and public flogging". Corporal punishment is also indicated for skipping classes or activities, possession or consumption of illicit drugs, making a noise in class, unauthorized writing on the whiteboard, littering the classroom, cooking in the dormitory, and taking food out of the dining hall.

  • Emmanuel International College, Jos
    "It is an offence for any student to disobey constituted authority of the school, that is staff and prefects of the school: manual labour for 1 day, wash hostel toilets for 6 weeks, 6 strokes of the cane for the student at the end of the washing."

  • Federal Science and Technical College, Dayi, Katsina State
    This co-educational secondary boarding school provides "five strokes of the cane on the assembly ground" for disobedience to prefects or failing to sweep and clean the classroom. For disrespecting the kitchen staff, the consequence is a week's suspension or six strokes of the cane at assembly. "Corporal punishment, suspension or dismissal" is the penalty for stealing.

  • Homat Private Schools, Ikorodu
    Public caning may be administered for disturbing the peace, fighting, insubordination, and refusing to queue to board the school bus.

  • International School Ibadan New!
    At this secondary school on the campus of the University of Ibadan, boys who wear the uniform incorrectly, such as failing to tuck in their shirt, "shall be given a specified number of strokes of the cane". "Sagging" and "Wrong haircut" "shall attract eight or more strokes of the cane depending on the frequency of the offence". Students who take food or drinks into class "shall be caned when necessary". Damaging school property "may attract six strokes of the cane". For vulgar acts or obscene language, "offenders shall be given six strokes of the cane or as prescribed by the Principal".

  • Omotayo College, Ogijo, Ogun State
    "Strokes of cane" may be applied for a fifth violation of the rules.

  • Redeemers Private Secondary School, Karu
    At this co-educational boarding school, hostel residents who commit certain offences "will be flogged six strokes of the cane by the principal or any assigned officer". Also, "Any student caught cooking in the hostel will be given six strokes of cane on the assembly ground and also given two weeks suspension". "Six strokes of the cane" is also the punishment for fighting and stealing, among other things.

  • Royal College Masaka, Nasarawa State [DOC]
    At this Christian boarding school for boys and girls up to age 18, caning takes place at assembly the morning after the offence. The punishment for stealing and for failing to do assignments is five strokes. For having phones, laptops or perfume, and for "examination malpractice" or "noise making after lights out", it is six strokes. "Sneaking out of the school without an exeat" brings three strokes.

  • Roshallom International Schools, Egbeda, Lagos
    At the secondary school, for boys and girls up to age 18, "Public caning especially during school assembly" is the first-mentioned in a list of disciplinary measures. There is also a primary school, where CP does not appear to feature.

  • Shining Star Group of Schools, Abuja (New URL)
    "It is our policy to make use of a cane as part of our corrective measures. A maximum of 5 strokes on the palm for girls, and palms or buttocks for boys. Depending on the nature of the offence, the disciplinary committee may decide to give more but to a maximum of ten (10) strokes."

  • United Faith Tabernacle College, Jarawan Kogi This is a Christian secondary boarding school for girls and boys. "Boys are not to be seen with girls in the night." Offenders "will receive 6 strokes of the cane".
     Cooking food in the hostels is forbidden. "Any student caught cooking will receive 12 strokes of the cane."

  • These Nigerian schools are known to have used corporal punishment in the past, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or are not on line at all:

    Ojora Memorial Senior Secondary School, Tolu, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item
    Olowu Nursery, Primary and Secondary School, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item
    Yaba Model College, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item


  • Eucon International School, Saipan
    At this Christian fundamentalist K-12 school, there is a demerit system: one demerit for homework not done, five demerits for insolence or dress code violations, and so on. "Upon receiving twenty demerits, the student is required to report to the administrator's office for a spanking. At any time a teacher deems it necessary, the student can be sent to the office for a spanking regardless of the number of demerits, but upon twenty, he will definitely be sent." It is no longer specified, as it was in previous versions, that "a reasonable number of firm strokes will be administered with a simple flat paddle", and there is no longer any mention of parents having to sign a form beforehand.


  • School of Tomorrow, Paranaque City
    A group of Christian schools. Parents are required to sign a "Corporal Correction Release".

  • Seed of Wisdom Learning Center, Bacoor
    "Offenses like cheating, lying, stealing, disrespect for supervisors and monitors, vandalism, cursing, name calling, bullying, etc. are subject to corporal correction, suspension, or dismissal." In particular, for a third such offense, students aged 9 or less receive CP while those aged 10 or over are suspended. "Paddling" is also listed as the only penalty for a variety of other infractions, apparently irrespective of the age of the student.


  • Babonneau Secondary School, Castries
    "Caning" is one of several kinds of punishment listed here, but no details are given.

  • These St Lucia schools are known to have used corporal punishment in the past, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or are not on line at all:

    RC Boys School, Castries -- see this Sep 2009 news item


Note: School corporal punishment in Singapore is restricted by law to caning, for male students only. Ministry of Education guidelines suggest a maximum of three strokes per disciplinary event (reduced in 2017 from six). For more information see this illustrated article.

  • Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School
    See Annex A: "caning and suspension will be meted out" to students who cheat during exams.

  • Ang Mo Kio Secondary School
    For all major offences, such as smoking or fighting, boys are caned (one stroke) in class on the first occasion. If it happens again, they get up to three strokes in front of the class. This is a change from earlier versions, where the second or subsequent caning took place in front of the whole school. Girls get detention instead of CP (for 3 or 5 days, respectively). The offender will also receive counselling. The school's decision on punishments is final. For lesser offences there is a merit/demerit points system.

  • Anglican High School
    This school has a demerit points system. Caning is administered when five or more demerit points have been accumulated. "For the very serious offences, parents will be informed immediately unless there is corporal punishment involved where parents/guardians will be subsequently informed of the action."

  • Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road)
    See Annex A starting on the fourth page of this Jan 2019 newsletter. This all-boys secondary school is part of the same "family" as ACSI (see next item) but unlike its sister school it is within the state sector. The document gives a list of crimes and punishments. Caning is listed as a punishment for eleven named offences, including a new one since the previous version, "inattentiveness during lessons".
     See also this May 2009 news item about the public caning of three senior boys at this school for bullying, and this Oct 2016 report about a mass caning for taking upskirt photos of lady teachers, reckoned to have been at this school according to local anecdote.

  • Rugby match
    ACSI (in yellow) vs. St Andrews (in dark blue). Two traditional boys' schools where rugby is played and the cane is well used.
    Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)
    Hit "16. Discipline Cases (Demerit Points)" in the left-hand column for a list of rules at this huge (2,800 students), highly academic, award-winning, private Methodist secondary school. No fewer than 19 out of 24 "serious offences" are listed as "caning offences for male students". ACSI is a long-standing exponent of caning boys: its former principal once told the press "we have corporal punishment for some serious offences" and if parents do not approve of this, "then they should not have put their child in this school" -- see this July 2001 news item.

  • Anglo-Chinese School (Junior)
    Another in the ACS family of schools, this one for younger boys. Disciplinary action for serious offences includes caning.

  • Bedok South Secondary School
    Male students who break the rules may be caned. Female students who break the rules may be required to carry out Corrective Work Orders in lieu of caning.

  • Bukit Batok Secondary School
    Here, boys are "liable for caning" for the usual list of serious offences including vandalism, fighting, bullying, gambling, gangsterism, smoking, cheating, defiance, skipping lessons, and truancy; and for a fourth latecoming onwards. Girls who commit these infractions are "liable for suspension".
    History: See this Aug 2002 news item about how Bukit Batok had been at a low ebb but was turned around by a new principal "enforcing caning more vigorously", with a dramatic improvement in the school's results.

  • Bukit Panjang Government High School
    See page 27. "One to three strokes of a light cane" is "one of the possible consequences for major offences". It is administered in the General Office by "the Principal or a delegated senior member of staff". Parents are informed "before or immediately after the caning".

  • Canberra Secondary School
    Here, for tobacco, defiance, vandalism, dishonesty, and other serious offences, boys receive a caning while girls must serve in-house suspension. The same applies if the student accumulates 18 demerit points. "The number of strokes of caning and number of days of in house suspension will be commensurate with the seriousness of the offence and will be decided by the School."

  • Christ Church Secondary School
    At this Anglican school, "Depending on the severity of the offence, male students will be given up to three strokes of the cane on the buttocks".

  • Chung Cheng High School (Yishun)
    This school states that boys are liable to be caned if they commit any of a long list of "major offences".

  • Dunearn Secondary School
    Caning is a response to serious offences such as defiance, truancy, skipping lessons, bullying, smoking, cheating, fighting and vandalism. Parents are informed after the punishment has been carried out.

  • East Spring Secondary School (New URL)
    Male students caught smoking, or possessing cigarettes, tobacco or lighters, "are liable to be caned in school". Female smokers are suspended in lieu of caning.

  • Fairfield Methodist Secondary School updated
    Caning is provided for major offences and also for accruing more than 10 demerit points. "It will usually take place in the Vice-Principal's Office. Depending on the severity of the offence, subsequent caning may be carried out in classrooms, at level assemblies or in front of the whole school."

  • Fernvale Primary School
    For a sixth offence of rudeness, theft, bullying or fighting, "the student will be given one stroke of the cane".

  • Fuhua Secondary School
    Choose the "Accountability" tab. Caning here is specified for smoking, defiance, theft, forgery, fighting, etc.

  • Henry Park Primary School
    "Caning will be administered if necessary to recalcitrant cases by the Principal."

  • Hillgrove Secondary School
    At this mixed-sex neighbourhood school, caning, suspension or expulsion are the penalties for major offences or repeated minor ones.

  • Holy Innocents High School
    "Caning (applies to boys only)" is one of the consequences for serious offences at this Roman Catholic secondary school.

  • Hwa Chong Institution
    This school was formed by the merger of the former (boys-only) Chinese High School with the (co-educational) Hwa Chong Junior College, and is thus now an all-through institution combining the secondary and pre-university levels.
     Caning is to be administered by the principal or the Discipline Master. The possession or use of cigarettes "may result in immediate suspension or caning or both". "Uncivilized behaviour" (abuse, defiance, obscenity), "integrity-related offences" (cheating, stealing, lying) and "criminal offences" (arson, vandalism, fighting, weapons, pornography) are all liable to be met with "not more than 5 strokes of the cane".

  • Juying Secondary School
    Male pupils may be caned for "major offences" such as smoking, bullying, theft and defiance, "while female pupils may be required to do corrective work or be suspended".

  • Kranji Secondary School updated
    This schoool's rules and regulations mention separately 17 offences for which caning is a penalty, with a footnote stating "Caning is administered only to boys."

  • Manjusri Secondary School (New URL)
    "Corporal punishment (for boys only)" is one of the consequences of "Category B (major)" offences here, including vandalism, dishonesty, tobacco/alcohol, and misuse of social media.

  • Nan Chiau High School (New URL)
    Hit "Offences and Consequences". Caning is provided for Level 2 offences (including being more than 10 minutes late, defiance, disruptive behaviour) and Level 3 offences (truancy, forgery, vandalism, smoking) but not for Level 1 (consumption of food outside canteen, improper attire).

  • Naval Base Secondary School
    On the sixth tardy per semester, boys are caned while girls get in-house suspension. Though not mentioned here, other offences such as truancy and smoking are also punished with the cane at this school, according to informed sources.

  • Northland Secondary School
    Caning is listed here as a penalty for a list of eight serious offences.

  • Pasir Ris Secondary School
    At this neighbourhood mixed-sex school, truancy, smoking, gambling, fighting and vandalism are among the offences which "may result in caning".
    History: See this Jan 2006 news item about a caning in front of the whole school. A senior student was punished with "a long cane" across his buttocks.

  • Peicai Secondary School
    Male students "may face corporal punishment including caning" if they defy teachers, steal, fight, smoke or bully, or have tattoos, among other things.

  • Peirce Secondary School
    "The school reserves the right to punish students for misconduct (including caning of male students for serious misconduct) before informing the parents."

    Part of page of school handbook
    Click to enlarge
    Another part of school handbook
    Click to enlarge
  • Presbyterian High School
    This has the reputation of being a very strict school, in whose hall was filmed the public caning scene in the 2006 fictional film "I not stupid too". The modus operandi shown -- in which the recipient is made to bend over a desk on the stage -- was closely based on real-life practice at PHS at that time, according to local sources, though the boy's reaction to his three strokes is clearly exaggerated for dramatic effect.
     The school's punishment details seem not to be on line; these images are from the printed handbook. Caning for boys is listed as the penalty for a first offence of smoking; for the second or third such offence, it is caning PLUS 3 days' internal suspension. Caning may also be administered for playing with fire, truancy, and "setting up web page using the school name", among other things.

  • Punggol Secondary School
    "The school is not required to inform or consult parents in advance of taking disciplinary action, including caning ... Taking responsibility and facing the consequences is part of the educational process."

  • Queensway Secondary School
    At this school, "depending on the gravity of the offence, the Principal may decide to cane the errant student in class or in the hall".

  • San Yu Adventist School (New URL) updated
    Caning, meted out for "serious cases" in general, is now also mentioned in particular as a consequence of fighting or violence at this private primary-plus-secondary school.

  • Sembawang Secondary School (New URL)
    Caning or suspension is the consequence here for a first or subsequent offence of, among other things, defiance, truancy, forgery, theft, bullying, fighting and pornography. It also comes into play for a second offence of disruption, taking unauthorised photos or videos, skipping lessons, and cheating, among other things. For a first offence of smoking or possession of tobacco products, boys receive 2 strokes of the cane while girls get two days' suspension. These numbers increase to "more than two" on a second or subsequent occasion. Also, "a minor offence committed 3 times or more may be treated as a major offence that warrants caning".

  • Springfield Secondary School New!
    "Students will be liable for immediate suspension and/or caning (boys)" for gambling, smoking, fighting, defiance, etc.

  • St Andrew's Secondary School
    The students at this 150-year-old Anglican all-boys establishment are called "Saints". It is highly regarded for its sporting trophies as well as its academic results. With its passion for rugby and cricket, and more than a hint of what used to be called "muscular Christianity", it probably comes as close as any to the authentic ethos of a traditional British boys' school, encapsulated in its splendid School Song:
    Boys playing rugby
    St Andrew's Secondary (in blue) vs. Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) (in yellow), two traditional rugby-playing boys' schools where the cane is in use.
    [...] Foes in plenty we shall meet,
    Hearts courageous scorn defeat;
    So we press with eager feet,
    Up and On!
    Ever onward to the fight,
    Ever upward to the Light,
    Ever true to GOD and RIGHT,
    Up and On!
    Up Boys! truest fame
    Lies in high endeavour;
    Play the game! keep the flame
    Burning brightly ever!
     St Andrew's is the only school in Singapore that says it canes boys on the hand for lesser offences - unknown at most secondary schools -- as well as the more familiar practice of a hard caning across the young man's buttocks for more serious ones, or for repeated minor ones. According to local sources, the first kind is fairly lightly administered, often informally and on the spot, whereas the second kind is a more formal ceremony that leaves weals under the shorts or trousers (as a proper rattan caning always does).
     However, this latest (2019) version of the Code of Conduct no longer mentions caning on the hand except in the single case of latecoming, a third instance of which brings "caning on hand or buttock". Otherwise, the document continues to list 30 offences for which a boy may be caned.
     In the case of drug abuse, outrage of modesty, and theft, this disciplinary ceremony is performed in front of the school. For bullying and fighting, the caning is delivered in class for a first offence and in public for subsequent offences. A public caning is automatic in a case where the police are involved.
    History: See news items from Oct 2003 and June 2009 about canings for bullying at the school, and this Jan 2008 news item about two St Andrews 14-year-olds publicly caned for trying to take a photograph up their lady teacher's skirt; and see this May 2011 report on the office caning on the buttocks of two named boys aged 14 and 15 for getting into a public spat on Facebook.

  • St Anthony's Primary School
    Here, "Corporal punishment (e.g. caning)" is a consequence for misbehaviour.

  • St Gabriel's Secondary School
    Student bending over chair This Roman Catholic boys' school previously said that students who arrive late six times are caned; this latest version no longer puts a figure on it, and just mentions "habitual late-coming" as one of a long list of offences that "will warrant corporal punishment".
     See also this entry in the diary site of one of its co-curricular activities, the police cadet corps, which mentions that cadets who absent themselves from training will be caned.
     See also these exam briefing notes, stating (page 13) that cheating of any kind in exams will incur a zero mark plus a caning.
     A few years ago, boys at the school made two light-hearted video clips to demonstrate the modus operandi for caning at "St Gabs", this one for lower secondary and this one for upper secondary, from which comes the still picture at right, showing the "hands on seat of chair, feet apart" stance that the student being disciplined is required to adopt.

  • St Patrick's School updated
    We cannot be sure, since no statistics are ever issued, but this all-boys Roman Catholic secondary school is very likely among the top three caning schools in Singapore, the others probably being St Andrew's and St Gabriel's, similarly all-male Christian establishments. Its 1,500 students aged from 12 to 18 are called Patricians. St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and the school's logo is the Irish shamrock.
    However, the modus operandi for CP is not at all Irish in style (stiff leather strap on hands) but traditionally English (swishy cane across bending boy's backside), as is the norm in Singapore.
    St Pat's boys up to no good
    Click to enlarge

    St Patricks' local reputation for mischievous lads (pictured right) and strong discipline is of very long standing -- see these recollections from the 1960s ("The caning left marks on their bums for years") and these from the 1980s.
     Previous versions of the school website, strangely, mentioned CP only in relation to smoking ("Patricians found in possession of cigarettes and/or lighters/ matches will be caned"). That still applies, but "caning" is now also the first-mentioned punishment for a first or second "major offence" of any kind. There is a list of 16 of these, including arriving late five or more times in one term and/or eight or more times in a semester (there are four terms a year; a semester is two terms).
    Local sources confirm that repeated latecoming has in fact always been one of the most common reasons for getting the cane at "St Pat's", along with smoking, fighting and truancy.
    Detail of back pocket

     The ceremony is performed with a metre-long rattan in the Detention Room, according to informed sources. The youth is asked to empty his back pocket (there is only one, on the right buttock -- see enlarged detail at left) and bend over a desk with his elbows and forearms on the desk (which makes for a tighter bend than "hands on the desk") and his face close to its surface. The Discipline Master then canes the student across the seat of the thin white uniform trousers, delivering one, two or three powerful strokes at high velocity, typically with a full arm swing and a short run-up.
    We are told that the majority of recipients are in Upper Secondary (aged 15 to 18), several of whom have said that their backsides were still badly hurting many hours later, often with bruises or even minor cuts as well as the inevitable "tramline" weals. This is plainly accepted as the price to be paid for breaking the rules. It seems that the culture at St Pat's is that no great shame attaches to receiving a caning, unlike at some of the more "elite" Singapore boys' schools where it tends to be seen as something of a humiliation, spoken of in hushed tones and freighted with moral opprobium.
    This matter-of-fact attitude is reflected on the school website when it says "Patricians [...] understand that they will need to face up to the requisite consequences should they exercise poor decision-making skills when they are tempted to commit errors. The consequences faced are meant to help them learn from their past errors, and to help them move forward with a sustainable change in behaviour and decision-making".
    It looks as if not a lot has changed at St Pat's in this regard since the 1980s when, according to the reminiscences mentioned earlier,
    "Rules were rules. It was the school's responsibility to make sure that students adhere to them. [...] As adolescents, we had a natural tendency to challenge or circumvent such constraints. Punishments were meted out without exceptions whenever we were caught breaking the rules [...] the teachers had to enforce discipline because it was part of educating us, and we had to break them because it was part of growing up."

    These everyday punishment sessions in the Detention Room are in principle private, though any other students present are allowed to watch, notably those awaiting their own turn to bend over. Public caning and class caning, reportedly once quite frequent at St Pat's, are said to be much less common in the modern era.
    Poster at school
    Click to enlarge

    Despite the strict regime, it is clear from a range of anecdotal evidence that the school commands huge affection and loyalty among its students and alumni. Many wear a school T-shirt bearing the slogan "I love St Pat's".
     A previous Principal here, Mr Lak, who retired at the end of 2011, was known for administering the cane himself. This photo (right) shows a poster put up on the front of the school by some senior students (class 5N2, age c.17) to commemorate his departure, reading "Thanks Mr Lak for the strokes".

    Part of discipline form - click to enlarge
    Click to enlarge
    At left is part of the school's Discipline Action Form, known to Patricians as the Yellow Form. The malefactor has to write a statement about his offence and sign it. Note that caning is the only kind of punishment specifically mentioned. There is a space for the number of strokes, "Caning administered by", and name of witness. "Medical Condition OK" is intriguing: one wonders if that means before or after the strokes are delivered.
    Caning letter - click to enlarge
    Click to enlarge

    At right is the standard letter sent to parents the same day to inform them that their son has received corporal punishment. This 16½-year-old got his thrashing for the very modern offence of being rude on Twitter about one of his teachers.

  • Teck Whye Secondary School
    Corporal punishment is no longer indicated here for "minor offences" such as latecoming. Caning (one stroke), plus 3 hours' detention, is still the penalty for male students who commit forgery, dishonesty, "silent defiance", skipping lessons and truancy. For vandalism, "open defiance", bullying, smoking, drugs, assault, gangsterism and other major offences, the consequence for boys is three strokes. Girls must undergo an equivalent number of days' suspension.

  • Victoria School
    Liable to be caned: Victoria School boysAt this prestigious all-boys secondary school, caning is no longer specified for a first instance of playing truant, smoking, theft, shoplifting, and other serious offences. The document now states that "corporal punishment" is applied for a second or subsequent "major offence". It appears that caning is now regarded as more serious than suspension.
     According to anecdotal evidence, students are made to change into PE kit (illustrated at right) for caning, and a broad leather strap is placed round the waist to protect the kidneys from a mis-stroke. However, informed sources suggest that caning is rather less frequent at Victoria than at some other Singapore boys' schools. As a matter of fact, the school briefly abolished CP altogether for a short period as long ago as the late 1950s, but the the cane soon needed to be restored ("I banned the birch [sic] and still maintained discipline", Singapore Free Press, 14 October 1961, p.1, not on line.)

  • West Spring Secondary School Several years ago this school advertised itself as having a no-cane policy, but that has been decisively reversed, according to local anecdote. The link above is to a Feb 2017 presentation for new students and their parents, which mentions that the punishment for a fourth absence from co-curricular activities is "caning for gentlemen, suspension for ladies".
    The letter to new parents clarifies that "caning for the male students" is a response to "willful absenteeism".

  • Woodgrove Secondary School
    This gives a long list of serious offences to which "public caning" may be a response. There is no mention of private (office) caning.

  • Xinmin Secondary School
    Caning is a consequence for Category C (the most serious) offences, such as smoking, truancy, vandalism, getting tattooed, and refusing to sing the National Anthem. In addition, there is a demerit points system, and "Boys who accumulate 20 or more demerit points may be caned. Girls who accumulate 20 or more demerit points will be given CWO [Community Work Order] hours or suspended from school".

  • Yio Chu Kang Secondary School
    Hit the "Disciplinary Guidelines" tab. Caning ("only applicable to boys") is listed here as a penalty for a fourth and subsequent instance of truancy from lesson or from school; repeated smoking; and physical violence.

  • Yishun Secondary School New!
    Caning may be meted out for a fifth and subsequent offence of latecoming, and also for skipping class, defiance, cheating, vandalism, fighting and smoking, among other things.

  • Yuhua Secondary School (New URL)
    This school "aims to correct undesirable student behaviours through collaborative and restorative practices". However, "Recalcitrant offenders will be subjected to suspension, caning or even expulsion".

  • Yu Neng Primary School
  • Yu Neng Primary School
    "The school will administer corporal punishment when pupils are found to have committed serious offences like stealing, smoking, fighting, cheating in examination, truancy, open defiance and rudeness. Corporal punishment will be carried out by the Principal or a school personnel appointed by the Principal. Corporal punishment will be in the form of caning which may be carried out in the Principal's office, the classroom or in the hall during Assembly."

  • Yusof Ishak Secondary School
    Here, caning (for boys) is a punishment for truancy, going home early without permission, repeated latecoming, weapons, pornography, alcohol, smoking, defiance, rudeness, theft, vandalism, gambling, fighting, bullying, indecency, gangsterism, and repeated minor offences. Girls receive detention in equivalent cases. If the problem persists, students are suspended.

  • Zhenghua Primary School
    "Caning will only be carried out by authorised personnel and only in the presence of the Principal or Vice Principal."

  • Zhicheng Private School
    This is a private "crammer" aimed at foreign students. There are many such institutions in Singapore, and it may be that many of them use the cane, but this seems to be the only one that has recently said so. One of the "recommended actions for serious offences" is "Caning (for boys only) or corrective work if a pupil is unrepentant". Parents are notified afterwards.

  • Zhonghua Secondary School
    References in earlier versions to "offences that require corporal punishment" have gone, and caning is now mentioned only as a penalty for not turning up to detention.

  • These Singapore schools also state that they cane male students, but give few or no details:

    Admiralty Secondary School New!
    Ai Tong School (primary)
    Anchor Green Primary School
    Ang Mo Kio Primary School (New URL)
    Angsana Primary School
    Boon Lay Secondary School (see pp.11 and 14)
    Bowen Secondary School
    Cedar Primary School
    Chua Chu Kang Primary School
    Chua Chu Kang Secondary School
    Clementi Town Secondary School
    Commonwealth Secondary School (New URL)
    Damai Primary School
    East Spring Primary School
    Fajar Secondary School
    Greenridge Primary School
    Guangyang Secondary School
    Hougang Secondary School
    Jurongville Secondary School
    Jurong West Secondary School
    Kent Ridge Secondary School
    Kheng Cheng School (primary)
    Maris Stella High School
    Marsiling Secondary School
    Mayflower Secondary School
    Meridian Secondary School
    New Town Secondary School
    Opera Estate Primary School
    Qi Hua Primary School
    Riverside Secondary School New!
    Singapore School of the Arts
    St Hilda's Primary School (New URL)
    St Joseph's Institution Junior (New URL)
    Swiss Cottage Secondary School
    Tampines Secondary School
    Tanglin Secondary School
    Teck Ghee Primary School
    Temasek Primary School
    Unity Secondary School
    Yishun Town Secondary School
    Yuan Ching Secondary School
    Zhangde Primary School


  • Bay Christian School, Port Elizabeth
    This school was not opened until 1999, by which time corporal punishment had already been outlawed in South Africa, for both public and private schools. Subsequent court cases have reaffirmed that Christian schools do not have any right to exemption from this rule, and yet here is one of them openly stating that "corporal correction is used in extreme cases as we believe it is a directive given by God".

  • Emmanuel Private School, Vanderbijlpark (New URL)
    "Biblical correction with the rod (paddle) is necessary for moral violations", says this K-12 Christian school. These include swearing, lying, fighting, and disrespect to staff, "or repeated detentions without a change in behaviour". Since schools are theoretically not allowed to use CP, the parents, preferably the father, must administer the paddling at home. A "Biblical correction form" outlining the offence is sent home with the miscreant student. It must be signed by both parents and the student, and returned to the school.

  • Hoedspruit Christian School
    "When disciplinary action (paddling) becomes necessary, it is firmly carried out by the parent, administrator or principal." "It is the policy of this school to administer corporal correction according to biblical admonition when warranted."

SWAZILAND (now renamed Eswatini)


  • Miono High School, Kikaro, Pwani Region
    At this government-run boarding school, "refusing corporal punishment" is an expellable offence.

  • Patandi Primary School, Arusha
    Information for temporary voluntary teachers. The headteacher is allowed to give four strokes of the cane for certain offences.

  • Royal Elite Schools, Dar es Salaam
    "Corporal punishment will be given to the culprits in accordance to the government regulations."


  • Provo Christian School, Providenciales New! "Corporal punishment (spanking)" is one of the methods used here to "encourage acceptable behaviour". At enrollment, the parents must sign that "I understand that the school reserves the right to administer corporal punishment to my child in a fair manner should the need arise to do so".


  • Excellence Christian Academy, Kabwe
    When corporal correction is warranted, a maximum of five firm strokes will be administered "using a simple, flat paddle for the girls and an appropriate rod for the boys".

  • Macha International Christian School
    "A reasonable number of strokes, not to exceed 3, will be administered by a staff member, using a simple, flat paddle. In the case of a serious offence the number of strokes given will be 5."


  • Gateway Primary School, Harare
    At this Christian school for grades 1 through 7, "For boys, corporal punishment may be used by the Head (or someone to whom he delegates the responsibility) as a means of discipline". Parents are sent a Discipline Report.

  • Peterhouse Boys, Marondera updated At this British-style, Anglican, all-male secondary boarding school, the headmaster is called the Rector. "The Rector reserves the right [...] to discipline pupils whose behaviour is contrary to the letter/spirit of these Standing Orders; this may involve the use of corporal punishment." CP is no longer specifically mentioned as the automatic punishment for smoking and alcohol use. For these two serious offences, earlier versions of the document specified 3 strokes of the cane for a first offence and six strokes for a second, with expulsion upon a third occasion.
    The Rector said at Speech Day 2018 that "corporal punishment has been resurrected, though somewhat disappointingly used just once so far this term –- the cane itself used on that occasion had become so brittle through inactivity that it shattered on impact". (He should have soaked it in water overnight.) This followed a period of a year or so during which caning was suspended when it was thought, wrongly as it turned out, that the government was about to outlaw it.
    An earlier (2015) item on the school's website stated that students aged 18 and over would no longer be caned. No reason was given, and that language now seems to have disappeared. It was also stated that "Under normal circumstances corporal punishment implies three strokes of the cane. Only under exceptional circumstances will more than three strokes be given."

  • Watershed College, Marondera
    At this co-educational Christian secondary high school, corporal punishment may be administered only by the houseparents of boys' houses.

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