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rainbow ruler   :  Country files   :  Current school handbooks -- page 8

Corporal punishment: regulations of individual schools

External links to present-day school handbooks

With comments by C. Farrell

blob The school handbook links are spread over nine pages:

USA, States A
USA, States C-K
USA, States L-M
USA, States N-S
USA, Tennessee, Texas (private and charter)
USA, Texas (public) school districts A-M
USA, Texas (public) school districts N-Z
USA, States W
All other countries -- this page

|Bahamas, The | Barbados | Ghana |Grenada |Guyana | Kenya |Malaysia |Nigeria |Northern Marianas | Pakistan  | Philippines |Singapore | South Africa | St Lucia | Swaziland | Tanzania | Turks and Caicos Islands | United States | Zambia | Zimbabwe |


• Bahamas Academy, Nassau
See page 27. CP (details not specified) may be used as a last resort at this school run by Seventh-day Adventists, but "certain disruptive behaviour may warrant corporal punishment as an immediate measure". Its use must be authorised by the Principal.

• Mary E. Albury High School, Abaco
Caning may be administered here for "major infractions" and "serious infractions".

• Temple Christian School, Nassau
 • Student Application Form
This K-12 school "reserves the right to discipline any disruptive student, as it deems necessary. This includes assigning demerits and detentions, counselling, the use of the strap/paddle (by the Principal, Vice Principal or Dean of Students), suspension or expulsion."
  At enrolment, parents must sign that "I understand that the school reserves the right to administer corporal punishment to my child in a fair manner, should the need arise."


• Student Code of Discipline
Document produced in 2004 by the Barbados Ministry of Education for all schools. It quotes Education Regulation 18(j), which "makes provision for principals to administer corporal punishment when necessary". The document lays down three levels of offences from level 1 (tardiness, disrespect, littering, dress code) to level 3 (assault, vandalism, forgery). CP is one of the disciplinary options at all three levels.


• Akosombo International School
At this co-educational boarding school run by the Volta River Authority, with two satellite schools at Akuse and Aboadze, "Persistent nuisance will be punished with caning not exceeding six strokes". Nuisance is defined as making unnecessary noise.

• Calvary Hillcrest Schools, Cape Coast
Caning may be administered for lateness, lying, fighting, bullying, quarrelling/teasing, flouting authority, assault, failure to do homework, and profanity.

• Christ Goodness Education Centre, Kumasi
Exactly the same wording as at Calvary Hillcrest (see above).

• Oasis Christian Academy, Kumasi
The admission form requires parents to sign acceptance of school regulations, including "paddling/canning" [sic].

• West Africa Senior High School, Adenta, Greater Accra
At this big school for boys and girls aged 14 to 18, CP is prescribed for several offences. Any student who steals "shall be caned and, where necessary, have his/her name disclosed to the student body". Students who are repeatedly late "may be caned, if need be". "Manual work or caning" is the penalty for taking unofficial short cuts to or from the school premises.

• Yaa Asantewaa Girls' Senior High School, Kumasi
Caning is the penalty for a first offence of flouting teacher's authority, and of possessing a mobile phone.


• Boca Secondary School, St George's
CP here is called "flogging". It is "applicable to all form levels" and must be administered in the principal's office. Flogging is particularly mentioned for fighting, obscenity, gambling, smoking, alcohol, not giving maximum respect to teachers, and being in school but absent from class. In forms 1 to 3 it is also the consequence for not serving detention.


• For the official CP regulations for all schools in Guyana, see this April 2004 news item.


• Almasi School, Nairobi
"Biblical Correction" here involves the use of a simple, flat paddle, max. five firm strokes. Both parents must sign that they support this.


Note: "SMK" means a state secondary school.

• Methodist Boys' Secondary School, Kuala Lumpur (MBSSKL)
At this ancient (1897) elite school in the heart of the capital city, students who smoke receive 10 demerit points and are also caned one, two or three strokes on a rising scale each time the offence is repeated. The penalty for chewing gum is a 10-ringgit fine plus caning. Corporal punishment is also indicated for theft, gambling, assault, weapons, fighting, bullying, truancy, vandalism, disrespect, cheating, and obscenity. Furthermore, students arriving at school after 07:30 for a seventh time are caned (one stroke) by the discipline master, with a further stroke on each subsequent occasion. In this 24-page Malay-language document, the word "rotan" or "dirotan" appears 27 times.

• MRSM Pengkalan Hulu, Perak
At this science college there is a maximum of 2 strokes of the cane. For more minor offences, one stroke is given.

• Sekolah Tahfiz Al-Quran Al-Ansar, Masai, Johore New!
At this Islamic boarding school for boys aged 13 and upwards, students receive up to 3 strokes of the cane for absconding, and just 1 stroke for various minor offences such as wandering around during lessons. Major crimes like smoking and fighting bring suspension or expulsion.

• SMKA Durian Guling, Marang, Terengganu
Only teachers authorised by the Principal are allowed to cane students. Female students may not be caned. The penalty for skipping class ("Ponteng Kelas") for a third time is one stroke of the cane, with two strokes on subsequent occasions. Curiously, there seems to be no mention of smoking.

• SMK Bandar Baru Uda, Johore Bahru
Lists the seven categories of staff members who are authorised to cane. Caning may be administered on its own, or combined with a formal warning.

• SMK Bukit Garam, Kinabatangan, Sabah
This school's Discipline Unit warns that, with effect from 1 April 2015, students who fail to turn up for school three times in a row will be caned on the buttocks. There is the same escalating 1-2-3 caning tariff for smoking as at other schools, in line with the 1997 Ministry of Education guidelines. For bullying, the punishment is three strokes of the cane on the buttocks.

• SMK Dato' Bentara Luar, Batu Pahat, Johore
This document entitled "Peraturan Sekolah" (School rules) says on p.5 "Hukuman rotan adalah sangat berguna dan berkesan apabila dilakukan sebaik-baik sahaja sesuatu salah laku itu dilakukan oleh pelajar" (Caning is a very useful and effective punishment when carried out swiftly following the student's misconduct). On page 35 is set out a "tariff" of caning penalties for smoking: one stroke on the first occasion, two on the second, and three on the third. For a fourth offence, the student is suspended. CP on a similar rising scale applies to some other offences, together with warnings, confiscation of forbidden items, and the payment of fines.

• SMK Seksyen 19, Shah Alam, Selangor
This secondary school in a satellite town of Kuala Lumpur mentions caning only in respect of being late for school five times.

• Sri Kuala Lumpur (Primary & Secondary) School
This private school reserves the right to take whatever disciplinary action it deems appropriate, which may include caning. The school's FAQs page adds that discipline is "very strong" and clarifies that corporal punishment is for boys only and is applied with parental consent.

• SRS Datuk Simon Fung, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
Hit "Misc: Some definitions". At this private school, caning is carried out strictly in private in the office: no canes are allowed in the classroom. A witness must be present.

• St Joseph's Private School, Kuching, Sarawak
At this Roman Catholic primary and secondary school, "Corporal punishment e.g. caning" is one of the measures that may be imposed by the Headmaster or his assistant.

These Malaysian schools are also known to have used corporal punishment in the past, and quite likely still do, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or were not on line at all:

Penang Free School, George Town, Pinang -- see this 2014 video clip.

St John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur -- see these external links, and also this 2013 photo showing students being caned upon arrival at school for being late.

SMK Siburan, Kuching, Sarawak -- see this Feb 2010 news item.


• Danbo International School, Barnawa, Kaduna State
"Students may face corporal punishment" at this mixed-sex secondary school.

• ECWA Staff School, Jos
"Public flogging (6 strokes)" is the penalty for sexual immorality at this evangelical boarding school. If a female student enters a male hostel or vice versa, they will get "Two weeks suspension, one of which will be spent in the school doing labour during school hours, public apology and 6 strokes of the cane". Cheating in tests incurs "Zero in the subject and public flogging". Corporal punishment is also indicated for skipping classes or activities, possession or consumption of illicit drugs, making a noise in class, unauthorized writing on the whiteboard, littering the classroom, cooking in the dormitory, and taking food out of the dining hall.

• Emmanuel International College, Jos
"It is an offence for any student to disobey constituted authority of the school, that is staff and prefects of the school: manual labour for 1 day, wash hostel toilets for 6 weeks, 6 strokes of the cane for the student at the end of the washing."

• Federal Science and Technical College, Dayi, Katsina State
This co-educational secondary boarding school provides "five strokes of the cane on the assembly ground" for disobedience to prefects or failing to sweep and clean the classroom. For disrespecting the kitchen staff, the consequence is a week's suspension or six strokes of the cane at assembly. "Corporal punishment, suspension or dismissal" is the penalty for stealing.

• Hebron College, Mowe, Ogun State
At this Christian secondary school, "Noise making is not allowed. It is punishable by six strokes of cane and washing of toilets." Stealing, foul language, and incorrect uniform are among the offences that "attract disciplinary measure such as being beaten publicly on the assembly".

• Homat Private Schools, Ikorodu
Public caning may be administered for disturbing the peace, fighting, insubordination, and refusing to queue to board the school bus.

• International School Ibadan
At this secondary school on the campus of the University of Ibadan, boys who wear the uniform incorrectly, such as failing to tuck in their shirt, "shall be given a specified number of strokes of the cane". "Sagging" and "Wrong haircut" "shall attract eight or more strokes of the cane depending on the frequency of the offence". Students who take food or drinks into class "shall be caned when necessary". Damaging school property "may attract six strokes of the cane". For vulgar acts or obscene language, "offenders shall be given six strokes of the cane or as prescribed by the Principal".

• Omotayo College, Ogijo, Ogun State
"Strokes of cane" may be applied for a fifth violation of the rules.

• Redeemers Private Secondary School, Karu
At this co-educational boarding school, hostel residents who commit certain offences "will be flogged six strokes of the cane by the principal or any assigned officer". Also, "Any student caught cooking in the hostel will be given six strokes of cane on the assembly ground and also given two weeks suspension". "Six strokes of the cane" is also the punishment for fighting and stealing, among other things.

• Royal College Masaka, Nasarawa State [DOC]
At this Christian boarding school for boys and girls up to age 18, caning takes place at assembly the morning after the offence. The punishment for stealing and for failing to do assignments is five strokes. For having phones, laptops or perfume, and for "examination malpractice" or "noise making after lights out", it is six strokes. "Sneaking out of the school without an exeat" incurs three strokes.

• Roshallom International Schools, Egbeda, Lagos
At the secondary school, for boys and girls up to age 18, "Public caning especially during school assembly" is the first-mentioned in a list of disciplinary measures. There is also a primary school, where CP does not appear to feature.

• Shining Star Group of Schools, Abuja
"It is our policy to make use of a cane as part of our corrective measures. A maximum of 5 strokes on the palm for girls, and palms or buttocks for boys. Depending on the nature of the offence, the disciplinary committee may decide to give more but to a maximum of ten (10) strokes."

• United Faith Tabernacle College, Jarawan Kogi
 • Hostel Rules
This is a Christian secondary boarding school for girls and boys. "Boys are not to be seen with girls in the night." Offenders "will receive 6 strokes of the cane".
  Cooking food in the hostels is forbidden. "Any student caught cooking will receive 12 strokes of the cane."

• Zion Christian Academy,, Ogbomoso, Oyo State
Parents must sign agreement that "The school has full discretion in the classroom discipline of my child, including corporal punishment".


• Eucon International School, Saipan
At this Christian fundamentalist K-12 school, there is a demerit system (see p.54): one demerit for homework not done, five demerits for insolence or dress code violations, and so on. "Upon receiving twenty demerits, the student is required to report to the administrator's office for a spanking. At any time a teacher deems it necessary, the student can be sent to the office for a spanking regardless of the number of demerits, but upon twenty, he will definitely be sent." It is no longer specified, as it was in previous versions, that "a reasonable number of firm strokes will be administered with a simple flat paddle", and there is no longer any mention of parents having to sign a form beforehand.

• Grace Christian Academy, Saipan
At this K-12 school, students receive "corporal discipline" from the respective Guidance Officer or the Principal. There is a maximum of two swats with a wooden paddle. Parents are notified by phone the same day if possible. "The corporal discipline measure is documented".


• Cadet College Razmak, North Waziristan
Cadets may be expelled for serious offences such as stealing, cheating, fighting and insolence. For lesser crimes, "Caning is administered by the Adjutant with the Principal's permission".


• Good News Academy, Baguio City
"A reasonable number of strokes, not to exceed six (6) will be ministered [sic] by the parents or a Staff member (when parents are not available or as advised) of the same sex as your child, using a simple flat paddle."

• School of Tomorrow, Paranaque City
A group of Christian schools. Parents are required to sign a "Corporal Correction Release".

• Seed of Wisdom Learning Center, Bacoor
"Offenses like cheating, lying, stealing, disrespect for supervisors and monitors, vandalism, cursing, name calling, bullying, etc. are subject to corporal correction, suspension, or dismissal." In particular, for a third such offense, students aged 9 or less receive CP while those aged 10 or over are suspended. "Paddling" is also listed as the only penalty for a variety of other infractions, apparently irrespective of the age of the student.


• Babonneau Secondary School, Castries
"Caning" is one of several kinds of punishment listed here, but no details are given.

• Corinth Secondary School
"Anyone who fails to meet detention requirements may be subjected in [sic] corporal punishment."


Note: School corporal punishment in Singapore is restricted by law to caning, for male students only. Ministry of Education guidelines suggest a maximum of three strokes per disciplinary event (reduced in 2017 from six). For more information see this illustrated article.

• Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School
See Annex A: "caning and suspension will be meted out" to students who cheat during exams.

• Ang Mo Kio Secondary School
For all major offences, such as smoking or fighting, boys are caned (one stroke) in class on the first occasion. If it happens again, they receive up to three strokes in front of the class. This is a change from earlier versions, where the second or subsequent caning took place in front of the whole school. Girls get detention instead of CP (for 3 or 5 days, respectively). The offender will also receive counselling. The school's decision on punishments is final. For lesser offences there is a merit/demerit points system.

• Anglican High School
This school has a demerit points system. Caning is administered when five or more demerit points have been accumulated. "For the very serious offences, parents will be informed immediately unless there is corporal punishment involved where parents/guardians will be subsequently informed of the action."

• Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road)
This all-boys secondary school is part of the same "family" as ACSI (see next item) but unlike its sister school it is within the state sector. The document gives a list of crimes and punishments. Caning is listed as a punishment for 16 named offences, including one recently added, "inattentiveness during lessons".
History: See this May 2009 news item about the public caning of three senior boys for bullying, and this Oct 2016 report about a mass caning for taking upskirt photos of lady teachers, reckoned to have been at this school according to local anecdote.

Rugby match

ACSI (in yellow) vs. St Andrews (in dark blue). Two traditional boys' secondary schools where rugby is played and the cane is well used.

• Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)
Hit "16. Discipline Cases (Demerit Points)" in the left-hand column for a list of rules at this huge (2,800 students), highly academic, award-winning, private Methodist secondary school. No fewer than 19 out of 24 "serious offences" are listed as "caning offences for male students". ACSI is a long-standing exponent of posterial chastisement for teenage boys: its former principal once told the press "we have corporal punishment for some serious offences" and if parents do not approve of this, "then they should not have put their child in this school" -- see this July 2001 news item.

• Anglo-Chinese School (Junior)
Another in the ACS family of schools, this one for younger boys. Disciplinary action for serious offences includes caning.

• Bukit Batok Secondary School
Here, boys are "liable for caning" for several named offences including vandalism, fighting, bullying, gambling, gangsterism, smoking, cheating, defiance, skipping lessons, and truancy. Girls who commit these infractions are "liable for suspension/CWO".
History: See this Aug 2002 news item about how Bukit Batok had been at a low ebb but was turned around by a new principal "enforcing caning more vigorously", with a dramatic improvement in the school's results.

• Bukit Panjang Government High School
"One to three strokes of a light cane" is "one of the possible consequences for major offences", "for male offenders only". It is administered in the General Office by "the Principal or a delegated senior member of staff". Parents are informed "before the caning has been meted out".

• Canberra Secondary School
Caning is a consequence for several offences.

• Christ Church Secondary School
At this Anglican school, "Depending on the severity of the offence, male students will be given up to three strokes of the cane on the buttocks".

• Chung Cheng High School (Yishun)
See "Offences and Consequences". Boys are liable to caning if they commit any of a long list of Level 2 or Level 3 offences.

• Dunearn Secondary School
Caning is a response to serious offences such as defiance, truancy, skipping lessons, bullying, smoking, cheating, fighting and vandalism. Parents are informed after the punishment has been administered.

• Dunman High School New!
"Caning may be administered on male students who have committed major offences. Only the Principal or staff authorised by the Principal may administer the caning."

• East Spring Secondary School
Male students caught smoking, or possessing cigarettes, tobacco or lighters, whether on or off school premises, "are liable to be caned in school". Female smokers are suspended in lieu of caning. "Students found in the company of smokers would also be punished despite the fact that they were not smoking."

• Fernvale Primary School
For a sixth offence of rudeness, theft, bullying or fighting, "the student will be given one stroke of the cane".

• Henry Park Primary School
"Caning will be administered if necessary to recalcitrant cases by the Principal."

• Hillgrove Secondary School
At this mixed-sex neighbourhood school, caning, suspension or expulsion are the penalties for major offences or repeated minor ones.

• Holy Innocents High School
"Caning (for boys)" is one of the consequences for serious offences at this Roman Catholic secondary school.

• Hougang Secondary School
One of the "disciplinary actions" for "major offences" is "Caning (private/classroom/public)".

• Hwa Chong Institution
Secondary 4 boys at HCI
Liable to five strokes of the cane: Secondary 4 boys at HCI

Front cover of the printed version
Extract from printed version, 2020
This highly academic elite school was formed in 2005 by the merger of the former Chinese High School for boys with the co-educational Hwa Chong Junior College, and is now an all-through institution combining the secondary and pre-university levels. We are concerned here with the high-school section (Secondary 1 through Secondary 4), which dates from 1919. It remains boys-only and keeps its own distinctive traditions, such as a rather unusual five-stroke maximum for canings and a rule that students are not permitted to wear long pants until Secondary 4 (age 16).
  Hit "Rules and Regulations" and also, separately, "Demerit Points System" near the bottom of the page. "Corporal punishment ... would be undertaken after careful consideration." Canings are to be delivered only by the principal or the Discipline Master. The possession or use of cigarettes or alcohol "may result in immediate suspension or caning or both". "Uncivilized behaviour" (defiance, etc.), "integrity-related offences" (cheating, etc.) and "criminal offences" (vandalism, etc.) are all liable to be met with "not more than 5 strokes of the cane". Students may also be caned for accumulating 9 or more demerit points.

• Juying Secondary School
Male pupils may be caned (1-3 strokes) for "major offences" such as smoking, bullying, theft and defiance, "while female pupils may be required to do corrective work or be suspended".

• Manjusri Secondary School
"Corporal punishment (for boys only)" is one of the consequences of "Category B (major)" offences here, including vandalism, dishonesty, tobacco/alcohol, and misuse of social media.

• Nan Chiau High School
Scroll down to "Offences and Consequences". Caning is provided for Level 2 offences (including being persistently late, defiance, disruptive behaviour) and Level 3 offences (truancy, forgery, vandalism, smoking) but not for Level 1 (consumption of food outside canteen, improper attire).

• Northland Secondary School
Caning is listed here as a penalty for any of eight serious offences.

• Peicai Secondary School
Male students "may face corporal punishment including caning" if they defy teachers, steal, fight, smoke or bully, or have tattoos, among other things.

• Peirce Secondary School [JPG]
"The school reserves the right to punish students for misconduct (including caning of male students for serious misconduct) before informing the parents."

Part of page of school handbook

Click to enlarge

Another part of school handbook

Click to enlarge

• Presbyterian High School
This has the reputation of being a very strict school, in whose hall was filmed the public caning scene in the 2006 fictional movie "I not stupid too". The modus operandi shown -- in which the recipient is made to bend over a desk on the stage -- was closely based on real-life practice at PHS at that time, according to local sources, though the boy's reaction to his three strokes is clearly exaggerated for dramatic effect.
  The school's punishment details seem not to be on line; these images are from the printed handbook. Caning for boys is listed as the penalty for a first offence of smoking; for the second or third such offence, it is caning PLUS 3 days' internal suspension. Caning may also be administered for playing with fire, truancy, and "setting up web page using the school name", among other things.

• Punggol Secondary School
 •  Co-Curriculum Activities/CCAs [PPT]
"The school is not required to inform or consult parents in advance of taking disciplinary action, including caning ... Taking responsibility and facing the consequences is part of the educational process."
  Slide 36 of the PowerPoint presentation reveals that for a third offence of truancy from their CCA, Punggol boys receive one stroke of the cane while girls must serve one day's in-house suspension.

• Queensway Secondary School
At this school, "depending on the gravity of the offence, the Principal may decide to cane the errant student in class or in the hall".

• San Yu Adventist School
Caning, meted out for "serious cases" in general, is now also mentioned in particular as a consequence of fighting or violence at this private primary-plus-secondary school.

• School of Science and Technology New!
At this specialised independent secondary school, "In recalcitrant cases and serious offences, the school reserves the right to take further actions including caning ..."

• Sembawang Secondary School
 •  Student Management
Caning or suspension is the consequence here for a first or subsequent offence of defiance, truancy, forgery, theft, bullying, fighting and pornography. It also comes into play for a second offence of disruption, taking unauthorised photos or videos, skipping lessons, and cheating, among other things. For a first offence of smoking or possession of tobacco products, boys receive 2 strokes of the cane while girls get two days' suspension. These numbers increase to "more than two" on a second or subsequent occasion. Also, "a minor offence committed 3 times or more may be treated as a major offence that warrants caning".
  The more recent "Student management" document says "The school adopts Restorative Justice in managing student discipline". However, it adds: "The school also administers punitive measures such as caning male students as a part of the justice process".

• Springfield Secondary School
"Students may be liable for suspension and/or caning (boys)" for gambling, smoking, fighting, defiance, etc.

• St Andrew's Junior College (SAJC) New!
Cover of student handbook Singapore's 22 junior colleges (JCs) are a type of post-secondary academic institution with a typical age range of 16 to 18, somewhat equivalent to sixth-form college in the UK. This one, SAJC, is a sister establishment to St Andrew's Secondary School (see next item).
The link above is to the 2023 SAJC Student Handbook. See "College Disciplinary System: Consequences" at page 21. Although it has always been explicit that the relevant legislation (s.88 of the Education (Schools) Regulations) -- which authorises the application of corporal punishment to male students -- applies to JCs as well as to secondary schools, this seems to be the first time that a JC has stated that it does actually implement caning.

• St Andrew's Secondary School
The students at this 150-year-old Anglican all-boys establishment are called "Saints". It is highly regarded for its sporting trophies as well as its academic results. With its passion for rugby and cricket, and more than a hint of what used to be called "muscular Christianity", it probably comes as close as any to the authentic ethos of a traditional British boys' school, encapsulated in its splendid School Song:

[...] Foes in plenty we shall meet,
Hearts courageous scorn defeat;
So we press with eager feet,
Up and On!
Ever onward to the fight,
Ever upward to the Light,
Ever true to GOD and RIGHT,
Up and On!
Up Boys! truest fame
Lies in high endeavour;
Play the game! keep the flame
Burning brightly ever!

 St Andrew's used to say it caned students on the hand for lesser offences (mainly latecoming) -- something unknown at most secondary schools in Singapore -- as well as the more familiar practice of caning across the seat of the pants for more serious ones, or for repeated minor ones.
  However, this latest (2022) version of the Code of Conduct no longer makes any mention of caning on the hand. Two hours' detention is now the only punishment laid down for latecoming. Otherwise, the document continues to list some two dozen offences for which a boy "will be subjected to caning on the buttock".
  In the most serious cases, this disciplinary ceremony is performed in front of the whole school. "Students involved in fights or causing hurt will be caned on first offence", with public caning plus suspension for subsequent such offences. A public caning is automatic in a case where the police are involved.
History: See news items from Oct 2003 and June 2009 about canings for bullying at the school, and this Jan 2008 news item about two 14-year-olds publicly caned for trying to take a photograph up their lady teacher's skirt; and see this May 2011 report on the office caning on the buttocks of two named boys aged 14 and 15 for getting into a public spat on Facebook.

• St Gabriel's Secondary School updated
Student bending over chair This Roman Catholic boys' school previously listed "habitual late-coming" as one of 22 offences that "will" (not "may") "warrant corporal punishment". The latest version merely notes that "penalties for late coming will be meted out accordingly by the School Discipline Committee" and, for serious offences more generally, consequences "include, but [are] not limited to, detention, caning and suspension".
  Slide 20 of the Prelim Examination Briefing 2021 (no longer on line) warned the 16- and 17-year-olds taking their exams that "any attempt to cheat whether successful or not" will be (not "may be") dealt with by "zero mark and caning".
  Several years ago, boys at the school made two light-hearted video clips to demonstrate the modus operandi for routine caning at "St Gabs", this one for lower secondary and this one for upper secondary, from which comes the still picture at right, showing the "hands on seat of chair, feet apart" stance that the student being disciplined is required to adopt.

• St Joseph's Institution
Another Roman Catholic boys' secondary school. This one now (2022) announces, apparently for the first time, that students may be given corporal punishment for serious offences. This isn't a completely new policy: there are anecdotal accounts elsewhere on the web of public canings on the SJI courtyard in the 1970s. But it does suggest a renewed emphasis on traditional discipline at the school, which was founded in 1852. Anyway, "Depending on the seriousness of the case, the principal on the advice of the Disciplinary Committee may decide on caning the errant student". Caning is specifically mentioned as a consequence for bullying, cheating, smoking, truancy and vandalism.

• St Patrick's School
We cannot be sure, since no statistics are ever issued, but this all-boys Roman Catholic secondary school is very likely among the top three caning schools in Singapore, the others probably being St Andrew's and St Gabriel's, similarly all-male Christian establishments. Its 1,500 students aged from 12 to 18 are called Patricians. St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and the school's logo is the Irish shamrock.
  However, the modus operandi for CP is not at all Irish in style (stiff leather strap on hands) but traditionally English (big swishy rattan cane across bending boy's backside), as is the norm in Singapore.

St Pat's boys up to no good

  St Patricks' local reputation for mischievous lads (pictured right) and strong discipline is of very long standing -- see these recollections from the 1960s ("The caning left marks on their bums for years") and these from the 1980s.
  Previous versions of the school website, strangely, mentioned CP only in relation to smoking ("Patricians found in possession of cigarettes and/or lighters/ matches will be caned"). That still applies, but "caning" is now also the first-mentioned punishment for a first or second "major offence" of any kind. There is a list of 16 of these, including arriving late five or more times in one term and/or eight or more times in a semester (there are four terms a year; a semester is two terms).
  Local sources confirm that repeated latecoming has in fact always been one of the most common reasons for getting the cane at "St Pat's", along with smoking, fighting and truancy.

Detail of back pocket

  The ceremony is performed with a metre-long rattan in the Detention Room, according to informed sources. The youth is asked to empty his back pocket (there is only one, on the right buttock -- see enlarged detail at left) and bend over a desk with his elbows and forearms on the desk (which makes for a tighter bend than "hands on the desk") and his face close to its surface. The Discipline Master then canes the student across the seat of the thin white uniform trousers, delivering one, two or three powerful strokes at high velocity, typically with a full arm swing and a short run-up.
  We are told that the majority of CP recipients are in Upper Secondary (aged 15 to 18), several of whom have said that their backsides were still badly hurting many hours later, often with bruises or even minor cuts as well as the inevitable "tramline" weals. This is plainly accepted as the price to be paid for breaking the rules. It seems that the culture at St Pat's is that no great shame attaches to receiving a caning, unlike at some of the more "elite" Singapore boys' schools where it tends to be seen as something of a humiliation, spoken of in hushed tones and freighted with moral opprobium.
  This matter-of-fact attitude is reflected on the school website when it says "Patricians [...] understand that they will need to face up to the requisite consequences should they exercise poor decision-making skills when they are tempted to commit errors. The consequences faced are meant to help them learn from their past errors, and to help them move forward with a sustainable change in behaviour and decision-making".
  It looks as if not a lot has changed at St Pat's in this regard since the 1980s when, according to the reminiscences mentioned earlier,

"Rules were rules. It was the school's responsibility to make sure that students adhere to them. [...] As adolescents, we had a natural tendency to challenge or circumvent such constraints. Punishments were meted out without exceptions whenever we were caught breaking the rules [...] the teachers had to enforce discipline because it was part of educating us, and we had to break them because it was part of growing up."

  These everyday punishment sessions in the Detention Room are in principle private, though any other students present are allowed to watch, notably those awaiting their own turn to bend over. Public caning and class caning, reportedly once quite frequent at St Pat's, are said to be much less common in the modern era.

Poster at school

  Despite the strict regime, it is clear from a range of anecdotal evidence that the school commands huge affection and loyalty among its students and alumni. Many wear a school T-shirt bearing the slogan "I love St Pat's".
  A previous Principal here, Mr Lak, who retired at the end of 2011, was known for administering the cane himself. This photo (right) shows a poster put up on the front of the school by some senior students (class 5N2, age c.17) to commemorate his departure, reading "Thanks Mr Lak for the strokes".

Discipline form

  At left is part of the school's Discipline Action Form, known to Patricians as the Yellow Form. The malefactor has to write a statement about his offence and sign it. Note that caning is the only kind of punishment mentioned. There is a space for the number of strokes, "Caning administered by", and name of witness. "Medical Condition OK" is intriguing: one wonders if that means before or after the strokes are delivered.

Letter from the school about caning

  At right is the standard letter sent to parents the same day to inform them that their son has received corporal punishment. This 16½-year-old got his swishing in January 2014 for the very modern offence of being rude on Twitter about one of his teachers.

• Temasek Secondary School
"Serious offences" attract "Corporal punishment – 1 to 3 strokes of the cane in the Principal's office", to be decided upon by the Principal only.

• Victoria School
Liable to be caned: Victoria School boysAt this prestigious all-boys secondary school, caning is no longer specified for a first instance of playing truant, smoking, theft, shoplifting, and other serious offences. The document now states that "corporal punishment" is applied for a second or subsequent "major offence". It appears that caning is now regarded as more serious than suspension.
  According to anecdotal evidence, students are made to change into PE kit (illustrated at right) for caning, and a broad leather strap is placed round the waist to protect the kidneys from a mis-stroke. However, informed sources also suggest that caning is rather less frequent at Victoria than at some other Singapore boys' schools. As a matter of fact, the school abolished CP altogether for a short period as long ago as the late 1950s, but the cane soon needed to be restored ("I banned the birch [sic] and still maintained discipline", Singapore Free Press, 14 October 1961, p.1, not on line.)

• Woodgrove Secondary School updated
This no longer refers to "public caning", just "caning" as a possible response to serious offences. "Parents will be notified after school has meted out the consequences."

• Xinmin Secondary School
Caning is a consequence here for Category C (the most serious) offences, such as smoking, truancy, vandalism, getting tattooed, and refusing to sing the National Anthem. In addition, there is a demerit points system, and "Boys who accumulate 20 or more demerit points may be caned". (Previous versions said "... will be caned".)

• Yio Chu Kang Secondary School
Hit the "Disciplinary Guidelines" tab. Caning ("only applicable to boys") is listed as a penalty for a fourth and subsequent instance of truancy from lesson or from school, and for physical violence.

• Yuhua Secondary School
This school "aims to correct undesirable student behaviours through collaborative and restorative practices". However, "Recalcitrant offenders will be subjected to suspension, caning or even expulsion".
History: See this 2006 video clip.

• Yusof Ishak Secondary School
Here, caning (for boys) is a punishment for truancy, going home early without permission, repeated latecoming, weapons, pornography, alcohol, smoking, defiance, rudeness, theft, vandalism, gambling, fighting, bullying, indecency, gangsterism, and repeated minor offences. Girls receive detention in equivalent cases. If the problem persists, students are suspended.

• Zhicheng Private School
This is a private "crammer" aimed at foreign students. There are numerous such institutions in Singapore, and it may be that many of them use the cane, but this seems to be the only one that has recently said so. One of the "recommended actions for serious offences" is "Caning (for boys only) or corrective work if a pupil is unrepentant". Parents are notified afterwards.

• Zhonghua Secondary School
References in earlier versions to "offences that require corporal punishment" have gone, and caning is now mentioned only as a penalty for vandalism.

These Singapore schools also state that they cane male students, but give few or no details:

Admiralty Secondary School

Anchor Green Primary School

Blangah Rise Primary School

Boon Lay Secondary School (see pp.14 and 17)

Bowen Secondary School

Changkat Changi Secondary School

Chua Chu Kang Secondary School

Clementi Town Secondary School

Commonwealth Secondary School

Compassvale Primary School

Damai Primary School

Edgefield Primary School

Evergreen Primary School

Fengshan Primary School

Gan Eng Seng School

Hua Yi Secondary School

Junyuan Secondary School

Jurong Secondary School

Jurongville Secondary School

Jurong West Secondary School

Kent Ridge Secondary School

Kheng Cheng School (primary)

Maris Stella High School

North Vista Secondary School

Qi Hua Primary School

South View Primary School

St Anthony's Primary School

Tampines Primary School

Tampines Secondary School

Temasek Primary School

Unity Secondary School

Woodlands Primary School

Yishun Town Secondary School

Yuan Ching Secondary School

Zhangde Primary School


• Emmanuel Private School, Vanderbijlpark
"Biblical correction with the rod (paddle) is necessary for moral violations", says this K-12 Christian school. These include swearing, lying, fighting, and disrespect to staff, "or repeated detentions without a change in behaviour". Since schools are theoretically not allowed to use CP, the parents, preferably the father, must administer the paddling at home. A "Biblical correction form" outlining the offence is sent home with the miscreant student. It must be signed by both parents and the student, and returned to the school.

• Hoedspruit Christian School
"When disciplinary action (paddling) becomes necessary, it is firmly carried out by the parent, administrator or principal." "It is the policy of this school to administer corporal correction according to biblical admonition when warranted."

• Robertson Logos Christian School
Parents have to sign a "Biblical Correction Release" whereby they undertake to administer "appropriate corrective measures" when requested by the school.

SWAZILAND (now renamed Eswatini)

These Swaziland/Eswatini schools are known to have used corporal punishment in the past, but did not appear to mention it on line when last checked, or were not on line at all:

Mayiwane High School -- see this Feb 2015 news item

Mbabane Central High School -- see this Dec 2016 news item

Mhlatane High School, Piggs Peak -- see news reports from October 2005 and June 2013

Mhubhe High School, Manzini region ("Pupils weep for leaving teacher", Weekend Observer, Mbabane, 18 Feb 2006, not on line)

Salesian High School, Manzini -- see this Aug 2013 news item and this Aug 2017 one

St Francis High School, Mbabane -- see this Oct 2008 news item

Sibuyeni Primary school, near Manzini -- see this May 2010 news item

Somnjalose High School, Ezulwini Valley -- see this April 2010 news item

Swazi National High School, Matsapha -- see this Jan 2012 news item

Velebantfu High School, New Haven -- see this Feb 2009 news item


• Miono High School, Kikaro, Pwani Region
At this government-run boarding school, "refusing corporal punishment" is an expellable offence.

• Patandi Primary School, Arusha
Information for temporary voluntary teachers. The headteacher is allowed to give four strokes of the cane for certain offences.

This Tanzanian school is known to use corporal punishment, but did not appear to mention it on line when last checked, or was not on line at all:

Kiwanja Secondary School, Mbeya Region -- see these Oct 2019 news reports and also this video clip showing 14 senior boys receiving public caning.


• Provo Christian School, Providenciales
 • Enrollment Form
"Corporal punishment (spanking)" is one of the methods used here to "encourage acceptable behaviour". At enrollment, the parents must sign that "I understand that the school reserves the right to administer corporal punishment to my child in a fair manner should the need arise to do so".


• Excellence Christian Academy, Kabwe
When corporal correction is warranted, a maximum of five firm strokes will be administered "using a simple, flat paddle for the girls and an appropriate rod for the boys".

• Macha International Christian School
"A reasonable number of strokes, not to exceed 3, will be administered by a staff member, using a simple, flat paddle. In the case of a serious offence the number of strokes given will be 5."


• Gateway Primary School, Harare
At this Christian school for grades 1 through 7, "For boys, corporal punishment may be used by the Head (or someone to whom he delegates the responsibility) as a means of discipline". Parents are sent a Discipline Report.

• Lomagundi College, Chinhoyi New!
This private Christian secondary boarding school says "We use warning, gating, corporal punishment, suspension, exclusion and expulsion as methods to deal with serious offenders".

• Peterhouse Boys, Marondera
 • Speech Day 2018
At this British-style, Anglican, all-male secondary boarding school, the headmaster is called the Rector. "The Rector reserves the right [...] to discipline pupils whose behaviour is contrary to the letter/spirit of these Standing Orders; this may involve the use of corporal punishment."
  CP is no longer specifically mentioned as the automatic punishment for smoking and alcohol use. For these two serious offences, earlier versions of the document specified 3 strokes of the cane for a first offence and six strokes for a second, with expulsion upon a third occasion.
  The Rector said at Speech Day 2018 that "corporal punishment has been resurrected, though somewhat disappointingly used just once so far this term –- the cane itself used on that occasion had become so brittle through inactivity that it shattered on impact". (He should have soaked it in water overnight.) This followed a period of a year or so during which caning was suspended when it was thought, wrongly as it turned out, that the government was about to outlaw it.
  An earlier (2015) item on the school's website stated that students aged 18 and over would no longer be caned. No reason was given, and that language now seems to have disappeared. It was also stated that "Under normal circumstances corporal punishment implies three strokes of the cane. Only under exceptional circumstances will more than three strokes be given."

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