- Road Primary School, South Hill
No nonsense at this establishment -- it gives a list of offences "which will result in lashes corporal punishment" given by the Principal (pictured). Students failing to attend detention assignment, too, "will receive lashes".
- Central Queensland Christian College, Rockhampton
"Corporal correction" is one of the steps here in cases of misbehaviour. It comes after "parent conference" but before suspension, and consists of "one stroke to the bottom", instrument unspecified.
See also this June 2011 news report and this June 2012 one.
- Chinchilla Christian School, Queensland
At this small primary school, "corporal correction" (no details given) may be used in cases of misconduct.
- Glenvale Christian School, Toowoomba, Queensland
In the application for enrolment at this school, parents must sign that they authorise staff to act in loco parentis and this "shall specifically include the use of corporal punishment".
- These Australian private schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but did not appear to say so on line when last checked, or are not on line at all:
Bible Baptist Christian Academy, Mt Helena, Western Australia -- see this July 2011 news item and this July 2014 one.
Grace Christian School, Bunbury, Western Australia - see this July 2011 news item.
Nollamara Christian Academy, Western Australia - see this July 2011 news item and this July 2014 one.
- Bahamas Academy, Nassau (New URL)
See page 27. CP (details not specified) may be used as a last resort at this school run by Seventh-day Adventists, but "certain disruptive behaviour may warrant corporal punishment as an immediate measure". Its use must be authorised by the Principal.
- These Bahamas schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Grand Bahama Academy, Freeport -- see this March 2007 news item
Mary, Star of the Sea Catholic School -- see this March 2007 news item
St Paul's College, Freeport -- see this March 2007 news item
L.W. Young Junior High School -- see this June 2008 news item
- Student Code of Discipline
Document produced in 2004 by the Ministry of Education for all schools. It quotes Education Regulation 18(j), which "makes provision for principals to administer corporal punishment when necessary". The document lays down three levels of offences from level 1 (tardiness, disrespect, horseplay, littering, dress code) to level 3 (assault, vandalism, forgery, arson). Corporal punishment is one of the disciplinary options at all three levels.
- These Barbados schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Alexandra School, St Peter -- see this July 2008 news item
Garrison Secondary School -- see this July 2008 news item
Harrison College, St Michael -- see this Dec 2009 news item
St Leonard's Boys' School, St Michael -- see this Oct 2009 news item
St Lucy Secondary School -- see this July 2008 news item
St Michael School -- see this July 2008 news item
- These Botswana schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Masunga Senior Secondary School -- see this May 2004 news item
- Preset Pacesetters Institute, Madina, Greater Accra
The detailed list of offences and punishments at this mixed-sex private secondary school has changed somewhat in the latest version. Some penalties are more severe than previously: "refusal to do or complete teacher's punishment", formerly punished with "caning in the Headmaster's office plus doing the given punishment", now brings "caning at assembly in front of the whole school plus doing the given punishment". Students who dress improperly are now required to carry out "sweeping the class room for one week plus caning", whereas "banging of chairs/tables in the classroom", previously punished with "scrubbing the toilet for one week plus caning" is now met with "payment of the cost per chair or table". A caning is also part of the consequences for "exchange of words or verbal attack on members of staff", "refusal to put on the required school belt", and "altering figures on school fee cards and receipts".
- These Ghanaian schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Faith Montessori School, Accra -- see this Nov 2007 news item
Mpraeso Secondary School -- see this Feb 2006 news item
Prempeh College, Kumasi -- see these external links
Sunyani Secondary School, Brong Ahafo -- see this July 2005 news item
- For the official CP regulations for all schools, see this April 2004 news item.
- These Jamaican schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Charlie Smith High School, St Andrew -- see this March 2006 news item
Kingston College -- see this October 2005 news item
- Testimony School, Eldoret
Not a handbook, but a blog by one of the leaders of this Christian school. He says the cane is still in place in the Headmaster's office. "It is not used very frequently, but it is known to be there, on hand, when needed. It assists in keeping discipline even when it is at rest."
Note: "SMK" means a state secondary school.
- Ma'ahad SAS, Jengka, Pahang
At this Islamic school hostel, penalties include 3 strokes of the cane ("Rotan tidak melebihi 3 kali") for serious offences ("Kesalahan Berat"), 2 strokes for middling offences, and one stroke for minor offences.
- Methodist Boys' Secondary School, Kuala Lumpur
Students who smoke here receive 10 demerit points and are also caned one, two or three strokes on a rising scale each time the offence is repeated. The penalty for chewing gum is a 10-ringgit fine plus caning. Corporal punishment may also be imposed for theft, gambling, assault, weapons, fighting, bullying, truancy, vandalism, disrespect, cheating, and obscenity, and for being late three times.
- SKCJ Changkat Jering, Perak [DOC]
This says, in Malay, that students will be caned if they are late five times without a good excuse. For smoking, the penalty is one stroke of the cane at the first offence, two strokes at the second, and three at the third. Caning may also be administered for stealing, blackmail, gambling, fighting, vandalism, pornography, obscenity, rubbing or hugging or interfering with female students, defiance, skipping assembly, cheating in exams, lying, and truancy.
- SMK Agama Bandar Penawar, Kota Tinggi, Johore
Punishments ("Hukuman") here include caning of up to two strokes ("Rotan tidak lebih 2 kali") for certain offences, and caning of 3 to 7 strokes ("Rotan 3-7 kali") for more serious ones, which is a bit odd, since the legal maximum in Malaysia is supposed to be three strokes.
- SMK Agama Sibu, Sibu, Sarawak
Here, students caught smoking ("rokok") are caned. The first offence brings one stroke, the second two strokes, and the third three strokes ("Kali Pertama (1 Rotan), Kali Kedua (2 Rotan), Kali Ketiga (3 Rotan)"). On the fourth time, the student is suspended. This, the page adds, is in accordance with a government circular.
- SMK Bandar Baru, Sungai Buloh, Selangor
This merely states (in Malay), at article 17, that caning ("dirotan") is a possible disciplinary action.
- SMK Sungai Tapang, Kuching, Sarawak [DOC]
Caning ("hukuman rotan") is listed here as a possible consequence for no less than 37 different offences, from smoking to truancy.
- Sri Kuala Lumpur (Primary & Secondary) School
This private school reserves the right to take whatever disciplinary action it deems appropriate, which may include caning (no details given). The school's FAQs page adds that discipline is "very strong" and clarifies that corporal punishment is for boys only and is used with parental consent.
- Yu Hua Secondary School, Kajang, Selangor
This page states (in Malay) that a student clocking up 10 penalty points will, if male, receive one stroke of the cane, followed by another stroke at 20 penalty points. For comparison, the consequence of accumulating 50 points is expulsion.
- These Malaysian schools also state that they use corporal punishment, but give few or no details:
Mara Junior Science College, Kuala Klawang, Negri Sembilan [JPG]
Sekolah Kebangsaan USJ20, Subang Jaya, Selangor
SK Bukit Gelugor, George Town, Penang
- These Malaysian schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
St John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur -- see these external links
SK Dato Abdul Hamid Satu, Pasir Mas, Kelantan -- see this Feb 2005 news item
SMJK Dindings, Perak -- see this Nov 2006 news item
SMK Aminuddin Baki, Kuala Lumpur -- see this May 2005 news item
SMK Jabi, Alor Star, Kedah -- see this May 2004 news item
SMK Kepala Batas, Alor Star, Kedah -- see this Jan 2005 news item
SMK Siburan, Kuching, Sarawak -- see this Feb 2010 news item
- Windhoek Gymnasium Private School
Corporal punishment is banned in public schools in Namibia, but not in private ones, according to this all-through primary-plus-secondary private school of 1,450 students, founded in 2007. It is co-educational, but only boys receive CP. The handbook states that CP is more effective than "suspension or expulsion, or other forms of punishment that have a negative long-term effect". There is no information about what the CP consists of, but we are told that it "is only to be administered by the Rector of the Secondary School and the Principal of the Primary School". Parents may object to it in writing, "in which case alternative punishment will be enforced".
See also this June 2013 press report about a lawsuit against teachers at the school for alleged assault.
- These Nigerian schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Olowu Nursery, Primary and Secondary School, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item
Yaba Model College, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
- Eucon International School, Saipan
At this Christian K-12 school, "corporal punishment (spanking) will be administered when deemed necessary". There is a demerit system: one demerit for homework not done, five demerits for insolence or dress code violations, and so on. "Upon receiving twenty demerits, the student is required to report to the administrator's office for a spanking". A note is sent to the parent, who must either sign a form approving the spanking, or come to the school and administer it him- or herself. Until one of these two things happens, the student is not allowed back into the school.
If the student reappears with the signed form, "a reasonable number of firm strokes will be administered with a simple flat paddle" by a staff member of the same sex as the student. The paddling must be witnessed and recorded. The student will not be physically restrained; if he refuses to submit, the parent is asked to come to the office to either administer the spanking or remove the student from the school.
At the same campus is also Eucon International College, a degree-level institution run by the same people. This handbook contains some of the same information about corporal punishment as the K-12 school book, from which large chunks of text have clearly been hastily copied and pasted. Presumably this is an error, since a college for adults wouldn't paddle its students ... would it?
- Cadet College Wana, South Waziristan
At this military-style residential government school (founded 2011) for boys aged 12 to 18, routine minor physical punishments are things like "30 front rolls on grassy lawn" or "20 push ups". More serious crimes are dealt with by "extra drills". The document says that "beating shall not be used". However, the Senior Housemaster, Deputy Vice Principal or Adjutant "may conduct caning in incorrigible cases as an exception".
- These St Lucia schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
RC Boys School, Castries -- see this Sep 2009 news item
Note: School corporal punishment in Singapore is restricted by law to caning, for boys only, with a maximum of six strokes. For more information see this illustrated article.
- Admiralty Secondary School
Here there is a long list of serious offences, from skipping lessons to smoking to bringing dishonour to the school or the nation. "Any student found guilty of committing any of the above", within or outside school, "may be sent for Corrective Behaviour (CBO), caned, suspended, reported to the police or expelled".
The second document is a notice about the National Civil Defence Cadet Corps, one of the school's co-curricular activities (CCA). It reminds members that CCA is part of the curriculum, and skipping it constitutes truancy, which may lead to caning.
- Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School
Caning (for boys), combined with detention, is a penalty here for first-time offenders in category 1 (truancy, vandalism, theft, gangsterism, gambling), and for recalcitrant offenders in category 2 (chewing gum, incorrect attire, unpunctuality, disruptive behaviour), but not category 3 (lesser offences). The equivalent for girls is extended detention.
See also Annex A of this Jan 2015 document [PDF] stating that "caning and suspension will be meted out" to students who cheat during exams.
- Ang Mo Kio Secondary School
For all major offences, such as smoking or fighting, boys are caned (one stroke) in class on the first occasion. If it happens again, he gets up to three strokes in front of his class. This is a change from earlier versions, where the second or subsequent caning took place in front of the whole school. Girls get detention instead of CP (for 3 or 5 days, respectively). The offender will also receive counselling. The school's decision on punishments is final. For lesser offences there is a merit/demerit points system.
- Anglican High School
This school has a demerit points system. Caning is administered when five or more demerit points have been accumulated. "For the very serious offences, parents will be informed immediately unless there is corporal punishment involved where parents/guardians will be subsequently informed of the action."
Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) [DOC]
This all-boys secondary school, whose main front page is here, is part of the same "family" as ACSI (see next item) but unlike its sister school it is within the state sector. The document linked above is a list of crimes and punishments. Caning is listed as a possibility for all except the most trivial category of offences.
See also this May 2009 news item about the public caning of three senior boys at this school for bullying.
- Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)
This highly academic, award-winning, private Methodist boys' secondary school doesn't currently put its mainstream disciplinary details on its website, although its former principal is on record as saying that "we have corporal punishment for some serious offences" and that if parents do not approve of this, "then they should not have put their child in this school" -- see this July 2001 news item.
ACSI (in yellow) vs. St Andrews (in dark blue). Two traditional boys' schools that play rugby and use the cane.
The document linked above is much more specialised, aimed at the parents of prospective students (including girls in this hitherto all-male institution), for a new special stream to take the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in years 5 and 6. Year 5 in Singapore is normally the year in which a student turns 17, though in some circumstances the age could be higher. This is equivalent to "A" levels, and all these students are, in British terms, sixth-formers.
Go to pages 46 to 48 for the "academic honesty policy" concerning cheating, plagiarism, collusion, fabricating data, and the like, on the part of these 16-to-18-year-olds. At page 49 the penalties for contravening this policy are listed, including, in very serious cases or when other disciplinary means have been exhausted, "caning (only for male students)". This "will be conducted in the principal's office, classroom or during school assembly". Furthermore, "all students who have been caned will be required to attend counselling sessions arranged by the school."
I suspect the reason the school is emphasising the point is that this briefing document is for parents of potential new students coming into ACSI at the year 5 level from outside, who, unlike the parents of existing ACSI students, might not be expected to be familiar with the school's strong CP tradition.
- Anglo-Chinese School (Junior)
Another in the ACS family of schools, this one for younger boys. Disciplinary action for serious offences includes caning.
- Assumption English School
At this mixed-sex Christian secondary school, caning is a possible consequence for wilful latecoming, loitering, skipping classes, truancy, cheating, defiance, persistently repeating an offence, lying, theft, forgery, arson, vandalism, weapons, smoking, alcohol, fighting, unlawful assembly, outrage of modesty, causing hurt, gambling, extortion, pornography, substance abuse, and use of banned items.
- Bedok Green Secondary School
Here, boys who commit serious offences "will be caned".
See also this Oct 2005 document from Christ Methodist Church, which includes an article (pages 4 to 5) by Bedok Green's then Discipline Master, who reported that his job was "very draining and extremely tiring". His duties included "carrying out corporal punishment such as public caning". He rather gives the impression that all canings at this school are administered in public.
- Bedok South Secondary School
Male students who break the rules may be caned. Female students who break the rules may be required to carry out Corrective Work Orders in lieu of caning.
- Bedok Town Secondary School
Here there is a detailed list of offences and consequences. Failure to attend detention class brings one stroke of the cane plus two more days' detention class. One stroke, plus 3 demerit points, is also the penalty for such things as leaving school without permission; for bullying and smoking, it is one stroke plus 5 demerit points, with two strokes and another five points for each repeat offence. Most serious of all are assault, gangsterism, weapons and theft, for which the penalty is two strokes on the first offence plus 8 demerit points.
In addition, a separate demerit points system page reveals that accumulations of demerit points themselves result in canings in addition to the canings for the original offences. Thus, on reaching 30 demerit points, the student receives one additional stroke of the cane. At 50 points he gets two strokes, and the parent must come to the school. So, if a student commits a two-stroke offence which also takes him over the 50-point level, he presumably gets four strokes all at once on that occasion. Curiously there is no mention of what happens to misbehaving girls, even though this is a mixed school.
- Bedok View Secondary School [PDF]
Caning "is to be administered on male students for serious offences". Parents are informed afterwards. "External suspension replaces caning for female students."
- Bishan Park Secondary School
"Suspension and/or caning" is the penalty here for persistent serious misbehaviour.
- Boon Lay Garden Primary School
Caning (for boys only) is used here "if a pupil is unrepentant".
- Bukit Batok Secondary School [PDF]
Here, boys are "liable for caning" for the usual list of serious offences including vandalism, fighting, bullying, gambling, gangsterism, smoking, cheating, defiance, skipping lessons, and truancy; and for a fourth latecoming onwards. Girls who commit these infractions are liable for suspension.
There is an interesting note in respect of smoking. In Singapore this is a criminal offence for those under 18, and this brings referral to the outside authorities, often involving a fine, as well as a caning in school. Students over 18 who smoke in school, or outside school in school uniform, are not breaking the law but these rules make clear that male smokers over that age will still be caned as a matter of school policy.
See also this Aug 2002 news item about how Bukit Batok had been at a low ebb but was turned around by a new principal "enforcing caning more vigorously", with a dramatic improvement in the school's results.
- Canberra Secondary School
Here, for tobacco, defiance, vandalism, dishonesty, and other serious offences, boys get one stroke of the cane while girls must serve three detentions. Caning may also be meted out for being late 6 times in two terms.
- Chong Fu Primary School
"The Principal has the authority to administer corporal punishment" (page 14). This power may be delegated to a senior colleague.
- Chung Cheng High School (Main)
In addition to the usual list of things like smoking, fighting, cheating and vandalism, offences which may warrant caning here include "displaying a complete disregard for authority" and "any offence detrimental to the good name and image of the school".
- Chung Cheng High School (Yishun)
Canings are administered here for major offences, including smoking or possession of cigarettes, gambling, cheating, fighting, bullying, vandalism and theft.
- Clementi Woods Secondary School
At this school, caning is one of the disciplinary actions taken for "serious offences" such as smoking, vandalism, fighting and bullying.
- Coral Secondary School
Here, "Caning (private/classroom/public)" is a consequence for major offences, or repeated minor ones. In addition, "Students who have committed 6 or more offences of latecoming will be dealt with severely. This includes classroom/public caning".
- Damai Secondary School
This school seems to have abandoned its former demerit points system and no longer specifies numbers of strokes for difference offences. It now simply states that the principal or vice-principal may initiate caning for the usual list of serious offences.
This separate page adds the peculiarly specific information that students who loiter in uniform after school in the void-deck areas of Bedok Reservoir Road (presumably a local den of iniquity) may be caned. On this further page we learn that a caning will also be awarded to a boy who is late to school for the fifth time.
- Deyi Secondary School
"Severe" punishments here are caning, suspension and expulsion, to be applied for "gross misconduct" such as vandalism, smoking, insolence, truancy and stealing.
- Dunearn Secondary School (New URL)
Caning is a response to serious offences such as defiance, truancy, skipping lessons, bullying, smoking, cheating, fighting and vandalism. Parents are informed after the punishment has been carried out.
- Dunman High School
Caning is administered to male students for serious breaches of the Code of Conduct. Only the Principal or staff authorised by the Principal may cane.
- East Spring Secondary School
Male students caught smoking, or possessing cigarettes, tobacco or lighters, "are liable to be caned in school". Female smokers are suspended in lieu of caning.
- Fairfield Methodist Secondary School
Boys who commit a fourth minor offence in a row receive 3 demerit points and one stroke of the cane; girls get five days of "isolation after school" instead of the caning. Further demerit points accumulate for further offences, with another caning (two strokes this time), or ten days of isolation for girls, at the 8th offence. At the 9th offence, both sexes get one week's ISS and the pupil must sign a behaviour contract.
As at several other Singapore schools, a student's first caning (per term, presumably) takes place in the office, his second in front of his class, and his third in front of the school at morning assembly. So much for the accumulation of minor offences. For more serious offences there is a detailed list of consequences. Thus, a boy will receive 5 demerit points plus one stroke of the cane for cheating in tests or truancy. For vandalism, bullying, gambling or smoking, the penalty is 10 demerit points plus three strokes of the cane.
According to the "School Rules" document, "Caning usually takes place in the Vice-Principal's Office".
- Fuchun Primary School
"Depending on the severity of the offence, caning will be carried out by the Principal or Vice-Principal, in the office, classroom or during the assembly in the hall".
- Fuchun Secondary School
Caning here is a consequence for smoking, violence, bullying, defiance and disrespect, vandalism, persistent latecoming, truancy, theft, and outrage of modesty. For cheating and repeated serious offences, there is public caning.
See also the April 2007 issue of School-Home Link, the school's newsletter for parents, which warns that students making irresponsible use of mobile phones -- such as taking pictures or videos with them on school premises -- will be caned (boys) or given a corrective work order (girls) and suspended.
- Fuhua Secondary School
Caning here is for smoking, defiance, theft, forgery, fighting, etc.
- Gan Eng Seng Secondary School
Pupils start with 50 points at the beginning of each year and can earn merit points for good deeds. Demerit points are subtracted for differing offences according to a detailed scale. At the end of each term, a student with no demerit points and who has not been caned earns two bonus points. Public caning may be ordered by the principal and/or Discipline Committee for serious offences, notably those which tarnish the school's image.
- Greenridge Secondary School
Here is a list of offences and punishments. For such offences as being late and deliberately avoiding being booked, leaving school without permission, truanting, missing detention, rudeness, serious disobedience, smoking, cheating and forgery, and for a second offence of skipping lessons, boys are caned and girls are given "long detention". For the most serious crimes, such as fighting, gangsterism, stealing and vandalism, the caning may be delivered in public.
See also this May 2004 news item.
- Greenview Secondary School
Here, "Caning (public or private)" is a punishment for skipping detention, truancy, defiance, possession of banned items, smoking, gambling, theft, fighting and gangsterism.
- Griffiths Primary School
Caning here is listed as a penalty for all serious offences, such as assault, gambling, vandalism and theft. "Caning will be done as and when necessary with the Principal's consent."
- Guangyang Secondary School
This school merely mentions that caning is a possible consequence of serious offences.
- Henry Park Primary School
"Caning will be administered if necessary to recalcitrant cases by the Principal."
- Hillgrove Secondary School
At this mixed neighbourhood school, caning, suspension or expulsion are the penalties for major offences or repeated minor ones.
- Hua Yi Secondary School
Here, caning is one of the consequences for serious offences such as gambling, theft, defiance, fighting and vandalism. Unusually it is not mentioned as a penalty for smoking, which probably accounts for at least one-third of all Singapore secondary school canings, but for which the only punishment stipulated here is suspension.
- Hwa Chong Institution
This school was formed by the merger of the former (boys-only) Chinese High School with the Hwa Chong Junior College, and is thus now an all-through institution combining the secondary and pre-university levels. It has a reputation for traditional values, exemplified by the relatively unusual rule that male students may not wear long trousers until secondary 4 (age c.16), a year later than at most Singapore schools.
Caning is described as "a last resort after all avenues to correct the students have been exhausted", and may be administered only by the principal or the Discipline Master. The possession or use of cigarettes "may result in immediate suspension or caning or both". "Uncivilized behaviour" (abuse, defiance, obscenity), "integrity-related offences" (cheating, stealing, lying) and "criminal offences" (arson, vandalism, fighting, weapons, pornography) are all liable to be punished with "not more than 5 strokes of the cane" -- a surprising number to specify, given that the legal maximum is 6 strokes anyway.
- Hwa Chong International School
This is a sister school of Hwa Chong Institution (see previous item) and on the same campus, but is a relatively new (2005) elite private school for (mainly expat) high-fliers of both sexes, which now offers nothing but the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) for ages 12 to 18 inclusive. Boys are caned for "persistent misbehaviour".
"Caning/suspension" is also specifically mentioned under the "Demerit points" section of the document for vandalism, theft, bullying and defiance. An accumulation of 10 demerit points for minor offences in one semester also triggers an automatic caning in the case of male students.
- Juying Secondary School
Here, "pupils will be caned and/or suspended" for tobacco possession, bullying, theft and defiance.
- Montfort Junior School [PPT]
See slide 21 of this Powerpoint presentation, which says that caning is one of the consequences for bullying, though apparently not for other serious offences.
- Muhammadiyah Welfare Home
Not an ordinary school, but a home for Muslim juvenile offenders aged under 16 at the time of admission. Technically it is an "approved school" (some Singapore legislation still uses the old British terminology). For minor infringements there is a demerit points system leading to extra daily chores; then forfeiture of weekend leave. After that comes caning, presumably for boys only, although that is not spelled out.
- Nan Chiau High School
Caning (no details provided) is available at this school for Level 2 offences (including being more than 10 minutes late, defiance, disruptive behaviour) and Level 3 offences (truancy, forgery, vandalism, smoking) but not for Level 1 (consumption of food outside canteen, improper attire). Pupils may also be caned for accumulating 21 demerit points.
- Naval Base Secondary School
On the sixth tardy per semester, boys are caned while girls get in-house suspension. Though not mentioned here, other offences such as truancy and smoking are also punished with the cane at this school, according to informed sources.
- Ngee Ann Secondary School
A long list of detailed rules here, and clearly a strict regime ("I must not put on fanciful spectacle frames .... I must tuck in my T-shirt neatly ..."). On page 4, under "Offences and Consequences", we read: "I may be caned for my offence (Boys only)".
- Northbrooks Secondary School
This school lists littering, bad manners, dishonesty, bullying, eating in class, use of electronic devices, gambling, stealing, fighting, smoking, vandalism and substance abuse among the offences for which caning is a possible consequence.
This presentation to parents adds (slides 28 and 29) that caning is also a punishment for truancy and latecoming.
- Park View Primary School
Caning is one of the consequences for bullying at this school.
- Pasir Ris Secondary School [PDF]
At this neighbourhood mixed-sex school, truancy, smoking, gambling, fighting and vandalism are among the offences which "may result in caning".
See also this Jan 2006 news item about a public caning at the school.
- Peicai Secondary School
More details here now than previously: male students "will face corporal punishment" if they defy teachers, steal, fight, smoke or bully, or have tattoos, among other things.
- Pei Tong Primary School
For "very serious offences", boys receive two strokes of the cane on the palm in the Principal's Office on the first occasion. The second time, it is the same but in the classroom. On the third offence, the penalty is "2 strokes of cane on the buttocks in the school hall during assembly". All these are in addition to (not instead of) suspension.
- Ping Yi Secondary School
These rules state that one of the possible consequences for violations of the code of conduct is "Corporal punishment (for boys only)".
See also this Sep 2006 news item, which states that Ping Yi will continue to use the cane even though it has adopted a "restorative practices" scheme for certain wrongdoings.
Click to enlarge
Click to enlarge
- Presbyterian High School
This has the reputation of being a very strict school, in whose hall was filmed the public caning scene in the 2006 fictional film "I not stupid too" (available on YouTube here; the scene starts at 55 minutes in). The modus operandi shown was closely based on real-life practice at PHS at the time, according to local sources, though the boy's reaction to his three strokes is clearly exaggerated for dramatic effect.
The school's punishment details are not on line; these images are from the printed handbook. Caning for boys is listed as the penalty for a first offence of smoking; for the second or third such offence, it is caning PLUS 3 days' internal suspension. Caning may also be applied for playing with fire, truancy, and "setting up web page using the school name", among other things.
- Queensway Secondary School
At this school, "depending on the gravity of the offence, the Principal may decide to cane the errant student in class or in the hall".
- Raffles Institution
This fearsomely academic private secondary school for boys is the oldest, most famous and most elite school in Singapore, sometimes known as Singapore's Eton. (Lee Kwan Yew attended it, and was caned there, in the 1930s.)
The current rules state that "serious misdemeanours", which include smoking, cheating, bullying, truancy, theft, vandalism, as well as arrogance or impertinence to a staff member, "can be punishable by caning".
See also this Sep 2005 news item about a public caning at the school.
- Riverside Secondary School
Here, boys may be caned for any of the traditional serious offences from the first time onwards. For truancy and skipping lessons, the cane comes out at the third offence, and for latecoming on the sixth occasion (per term, presumably). Girls get "two days of corrective work order" in lieu of caning, which sounds at least as bad, and certainly a great deal more time-consuming.
- Rosyth Primary School
Slide 30 of this presentation for the parents of new students tells us that caning is used for "recalcitrant" discipline cases, but only in the upper school.
- St Andrew's Junior School [PPT]
A Powerpoint slide presentation on Pupil Management from this boys-only primary school, mentioning (see slide 8) that caning is one of the consequences for misbehaviour, but giving no details.
See also Letter to Parents, August 2008 (scroll down to "Discipline Issues") in which the Principal notes that the school is very reluctant to publicly cane boys from the lower primary level.
- St Andrew's Secondary School
This 150-year-old Anglican all-boys establishment is highly regarded for its sporting trophies as well as its academic results. With its passion for rugby and cricket, and more than a hint of what used to be called "muscular Christianity", it probably comes as close as any to the authentic ethos of a traditional British boys' school, encapsulated in its splendid School Song:
St Andrew's Secondary (in blue) vs. Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) (in yellow), two traditional rugby-playing boys' schools where the cane is used when necessary.
[...] Foes in plenty we shall meet,
St Andrew's is the only school in Singapore which says that it deploys caning on the hand for lesser offences - unknown at most secondary schools -- as well as the more familiar practice of a hard caning across the boy's buttocks for more serious ones, or for repeated minor ones. According to informed sources, the first kind is fairly lightly administered, often on the spot, whereas the second kind leaves weals under the shorts or trousers.
Hearts courageous scorn defeat;
So we press with eager feet,
Up and On!
Ever onward to the fight,
Ever upward to the Light,
Ever true to GOD and RIGHT,
Up and On!
Up Boys! truest fame
Lies in high endeavour;
Play the game! keep the flame
Burning brightly ever!
The distinction between the two types of caning is made more explicit in the current version of the conduct rules and consequences. Unlike an earlier version, in which specific penalties were separately listed for each offence, there is now a demerit system. Three or four demerit points bring a hand-caning, five or more a buttock-caning. However, the rules do still spell out that some infractions such as smoking (4 demerit points) will result in "caning on the buttock" from the second offence onwards.
In the case of drug abuse and theft (5 demerit points), it is stated that this discipline is carried out in front of the school. For bullying and fighting (5 demerit points), the caning is delivered in class for a first offence and in public for subsequent offences. A public buttock-caning is automatic in a case where the police are involved, even if the offence is committed away from school. A repeat police case brings public caning plus suspension, or public caning plus expulsion.
Also, if students are late to school five or more times in a term, "caning may be administered".
See also news items from Oct 2003 and June 2009 about canings for bullying at the school, and this Jan 2008 news item about two St Andrews 14-year-olds publicly caned for trying to take a photograph up their lady teacher's skirt; and see this May 2011 report on a private caning administered to two boys for getting into a public dispute on Facebook.
- St Anthony's Primary School
Here, "Corporal punishment (e.g. caning) may be meted out to a repeat offender or in a situation where there is intent to cause hurt".
- St Gabriel's Primary School for Boys
A very specific list of offences and their punishments. Caning is apparently the only available punishment for quite a number of serious offences, with the number of strokes specified in each case, either one (e.g. extortion) or two (e.g. substance abuse). An earlier document, now apparently gone, stated that for repeat offenders, a maximum of 3 strokes is given either in the classroom or on the stage, presumably in front of the whole school. All canings are followed by counselling.
- St Gabriel's Secondary School
This is a Roman Catholic boys' school. Students who arrive late six times are caned (in lower secondary it was formerly ten times, so things have got stricter as far as latecoming is concerned). Caning is also the standard punishment for many disciplinary cases in general, preceded and followed by counselling.
See also this entry in the diary site of one of its co-curricular activities, the police cadet corps, which mentions that students who absent themselves from training will be caned.
See also these exam briefing notes [PDF], stating (page 10) that cheating of any kind in exams will incur a zero mark plus a caning.
According to informed sources, everyday offences at "St Gabs" routinely incur either one or two vigorous strokes across the seat of the dark blue uniform trousers in a private ceremony in the office; for serious matters, the number of strokes is higher. Public caning here is thought to be relatively rare.
A few years ago students of the school made two light-hearted video clips to demonstrate the modus operandi, this one for lower secondary and this one for upper secondary, from which comes the still picture at right, showing the "hands on seat of chair, feet wide apart" stance that the recipient is required to adopt.
- St Hilda's Secondary School
Here, "Caning/In-school suspension" (the latter presumably for girls) is a penalty for truancy, repeated poor classroom conduct, misuse of technology, and a seventh or subsequent latecoming. For the usual list of serious offences (smoking, bullying, fighting, vandalism and so on), boys "may be" caned at the first offence and "will be" caned at the second offence.
Click to enlarge
- St Patrick's School
Students at this all-boys Roman Catholic secondary school, which has about 1,500 students aged from 12 to 18, are called Patricians. St Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and the school's logo is the Irish shamrock. The rules state that "Patricians found in possession of cigarettes and/or lighters/matches will be caned". There is anecdotal evidence that many other offences are also frequently punished with the cane, which is a long-standing tradition at "St Pat's" -- see this external link.
CP is meted out privately by one of the Discipline Masters or, occasionally, the Vice-Principal, with the student bending across a desk. The strokes are applied across the seat of the thin white uniform trousers. Also, a typical morning sees latecomers invited to the office for immediate discipline (one stroke). Public caning and class caning are said to be much less common, but not unknown in more serious cases.
The previous Principal here, Mr Lak, who retired at the end of 2011, was known for administering the cane himself. This photo (right) shows a poster put up on the front of the school by some senior students (class 5N2, age c.17) to commemorate his departure, reading "Thanks Mr Lak for the strokes".
- School of the Arts [PDF]
Bullying, open defiance, truancy, use of vulgarities, smoking, and persistent latecoming are among the transgressions that may incur "caning (for boys)" at this specialised academy founded in 2008 to provide "a holistic education for youths aged 13 to 18 years old, through a six-year integrated arts and academic curriculum leading to the International Baccalaureate".
- Sembawang Primary School
There is a list of offences which are "considered serious enough to merit corporal punishment" (smoking, bullying, cheating, theft, etc.).
- Sembawang Secondary School [PDF]
Caning or suspension is the consequence here for a first or subsequent offence of, among other things, defiance, truancy, forgery, theft, bullying, fighting and pornography. It also comes into play for a second offence of disruption, taking unauthorised photos or videos, and cheating, among other things. For a first offence of smoking or possession of tobacco products, boys receive 2 strokes of the cane while girls get two days' suspension. These numbers increase to "more than two" on a second or subsequent occasion. Caning may also be administered for a minor offence committed 3 times or more.
See also "Preparing your pitch for CCA Open House" [PDF], for members of the National Cadet Corps at the school trying to recruit new cadets. Any cadet found badmouthing other CCAs "will be considered as defying authority and will be referred as a discipline case punishable by caning".
- Shuqun Secondary School
Caning is one of the penalties for all 16 serious offences listed, except truancy. It may also be meted out for the following "appearance" offences if repeated: hair coloured or too long, wearing shorts or pants that are too large, wearing coloured contact lenses.
- Tanjong Katong Secondary School
Here, serious offences such as visiting cyber cafes, intimacy, smoking and truancy "may lead to a student being severely punished", which "could be in the form of caning, suspension and even expulsion from the school".
- Teck Whye Secondary School
Boys get one stroke of the cane for a 7th classroom offence (previously tenth) and for a fourth arrival at class more than 5 minutes after the bell. The previous demerit points system seems to have been abolished, but caning (one stroke) is still the punishment for boys who commit forgery, dishonesty, "silent defiance", skipping lessons and truancy. For vandalism, "open defiance", bullying, smoking, drugs, assault, gangsterism and other major offences, the penalty is three strokes of the cane. Girls must undergo an equivalent number of days' suspension.
- Temasek Primary School
"The school will administer caning to the boys should they commit serious and repeated offences." Girls get unspecified "appropriate disciplinary action".
- Victoria School
At this prestigious boys' secondary school, canings are meted out for a first instance of playing truant, smoking, theft, shoplifting, and other serious offences, and for a repeat instance of some less serious ones, such as "inappropriate hairstyle" and "sneaking into school after morning assembly".
According to anecdotal evidence, students are made to change into PE kit (illustrated at right) for caning, and a broad leather strap is placed round the waist to protect the kidneys from a mis-stroke. However, informed sources suggest that caning is a good deal less frequent at Victoria than at some other Singapore boys' schools. As a matter of fact, the school abolished the cane altogether for a period as long ago as the 1960s, but the results were not satisfactory and the penalty was restored.
- West Spring Secondary School
Some years ago this school advertised itself as having a no-cane policy, but that has been decisively reversed and, according to informed sources, it is now very much a caning school. The link above is to a presentation for new students and their parents. Students are expected to be "ladies and gentlemen"; there are "strict rules with clear consequences" with, "for gentlemen, caning meted for serious offences" (page 8). Caning is specifically mentioned for absences and latecoming (page 9) and failing to attend co-curricular activities (page 10).
See also the "Discipline framework" chart, which includes "cane" as well as "carrot". The carrot is metaphorical but the cane is not.
This presentation [PDF] specifies that a fourth absence from co-curricular programmes brings "caning for gentlemen, suspension for ladies".
- Woodgrove Secondary School
This gives a long list of serious offences to which "public caning" may be a response. There is no mention of private (office) caning.
- Xinmin Secondary School [PDF]
Caning is one of the consequences for Category C (the most serious) offences, such as smoking, truancy, vandalism, getting tattoos, and refusing to sing the National Anthem. In addition, there is a demerit points system, and "Boys who accumulate 20 or more demerit points may be caned".
- Yuhua Secondary School
This school "aims to correct undesirable student behaviours through collaborative and restorative practices". However, "Recalcitrant offenders will be subjected to suspension, caning or even expulsion".
- Yusof Ishak Secondary School
Here, caning (for boys) is a punishment for truancy, going home early without permission, repeated latecoming, weapons, pornography, alcohol, smoking, defiance, rudeness, theft, vandalism, gambling, fighting, bullying, indecency, gangsterism, and repeated minor offences. Girls receive detention in equivalent cases. If the problem persists, students are suspended.
- Zhicheng Private School [PDF]
At this private crammer aimed at foreign students, one of the "recommended actions for serious offences" is "Caning (for boys only) or corrective work if a pupil is unrepentant". Parents are notified afterwards.
- Zhonghua Secondary School
"Students who committed an offence that required corporal punishment will be awarded a 'Fair' grade for that semester."
- These Singapore schools also state that they administer caning to male students, but give few or no details:
Ai Tong School (primary)
Anchor Green Primary School [PDF]
Ang Mo Kio Primary School
Balestier Hill Secondary School
Cedar Primary School
Chestnut Drive Secondary School
Chua Chu Kang Primary School
Chua Chu Kang Secondary School
Commonwealth Secondary School
Compassvale Secondary School
East View Secondary School
Evergreen Secondary School
Fajar Secondary School
First Toa Payoh Secondary School
Greendale Secondary School
Greenridge Primary School
Hong Kah Secondary School
Kheng Cheng School (primary)
Kranji Secondary School
Loyang Secondary School
Mayflower Secondary School
Montfort Secondary School [PDF]
Peirce Secondary School
Pioneer Secondary School [PDF]
Punggol Secondary School
Seng Kang Secondary School [PDF]
Serangoon Garden Secondary School
Swiss Cottage Secondary School
Tanglin Secondary School
Teck Ghee Primary School
Unity Secondary School
Westwood Secondary School
Yishun Town Secondary School
Yuan Ching Secondary School
- These Singapore schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line:
- Siglap Secondary School -- see this April 2006 news item about a 17-year-old student given two strokes of the cane in front of the school
- Yuan Ching Secondary School -- see this April 2007 news item reporting that the school administered 80 canings a year between 1999 and 2001 but had since got the number down to about 10 per year.
- Bay Christian School, Port Elizabeth (Alternative link)
This school was not opened until 1999, by which time corporal punishment had already been outlawed in South Africa, for both public and private schools. Subsequent court cases have reaffirmed that Christian schools do not have any right to exemption from this rule, and yet here is one of them openly stating that "corporal correction is used in extreme cases as we believe it is a directive given by God".
- Calvary Christian College, Johannesburg [PDF]
This school is another example. "We do not believe in corporal punishment but in corporal correction. The objective of correction is always to train and form the child, never to wound or maim." Corporal correction is defined as "Discipline through receiving a hiding". Hidings are given with a paddle; only the principal or pastor may administer them. Students who disobey the rules are given demerits, "or they will be sent to the office for a hiding". In grades 8 through 12, "in certain cases boys are given the choice of either a hiding or demerits" (although this is a mixed-sex school). The "learner" (= student), as well as the parents, must sign acceptance of this discipline policy.
- Emmanuel Private School, Vanderbijlpark
"Biblical correction with the rod (paddle) is necessary for moral violations", says this K-12 Christian school. These include swearing, lying, fighting, and disrespect to staff, "or repeated detentions without a change in behaviour". Since schools are not allowed to use CP, the parents, preferably the father, must administer the paddling at home. A "Biblical correction form" outlining the offence is sent home with the miscreant student. It must be signed by both parents and the student, and returned to the school.
- Strand Christian Academy, Western Cape
For serious offences, including fighting, defiance and swearing, or upon receiving a fourth detention, the punishment here is "Biblical correction". As CP is illegal at school, a Correction Report is sent home with the student, whose father must administer the spanking that same evening. The father must complete the rest of the form to certify that the punishment has been delivered, and return it to the school. If the parents dispute the need for a spanking, the student is suspended. After three "Biblical corrections", the parents must attend a meeting at the school. If behaviour does not improve, expulsion may follow.
- International Christian School, Uijongbu
"When minor problems arise, the teacher will administer the necessary discipline. At the elementary level, the student may be sent to principal, and a spanking may be used as discipline." Parents who are opposed to CP must work out a behavioural contract with the school.
- Seoul Christian School
Application form for this K-12 school. "The administration reserves the right to use
corporal punishment when necessary."
- These Swaziland schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Mayiwane High School -- see this Feb 2015 news item New!
Mhlatane High School, Piggs Peak -- see news reports from October 2005 and June 2013
Mhubhe High School, Manzini region ("Pupils weep for leaving teacher", Weekend Observer, Mbabane, 18 Feb 2006, not on line)
Salesian High School, Manzini -- see this Aug 2013 news item
St Francis High School, Mbabane -- see this Oct 2008 news item
Sibuyeni Primary school, near Manzini -- see this May 2010 news item
Somnjalose High School, Ezulwini Valley -- see this April 2010 news item
Swazi National High School, Matsapha -- see this Jan 2012 news item
Velebantfu High School, New Haven -- see this Feb 2009 news item
Patandi Primary School
Information for temporary voluntary teachers. The headteacher is allowed to give four strokes of the cane for certain offences.
- These Tanzania schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Kahororo Secondary School, Kagera -- see this Sep 2004 news item
- These Uganda schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:
Bethany High School, Naalya -- see this April 2005 news item
Excellence Christian Academy, Kabwe
When corporal correction is warranted, a maximum of five firm strokes will be administered "using a simple, flat paddle for the girls and an appropriate rod for the boys".
- Falcon College, Esigodini
At this boys' Christian secondary boarding school, "only the headmaster, deputy headmaster and housemasters may administer corporal punishment and even they need to document that procedure and have a witness present".
See also this more recent document, which states that discipline "is an area we pride ourselves in ... We still use corporal punishment at the Headmaster and Housemaster level".
See also this newsletter and this one, both mentioning cases where canings have been administered.
- Midlands Christian College, Gweru [PDF]
Application form for this co-educational secondary school. Parents have to sign "I accept corporal punishment for my child, administered according to the Ministry of Education's policy and procedures".
- Peterhouse Boys' School, Marondera
This is an Anglican boys' secondary boarding school in the English tradition. For many years the school's website said only that "Corporal punishment is administered only by the Rector, Senior Master and housemasters". Now more specific information has been added to reflect the stated belief of the fairly new Rector (= headmaster) in "strong and clear codes of discipline" and his view that "corporal punishment should be used for serious breaches of school discipline".
Cases must be referred to the Rector before caning is administered. The normal penalty is three strokes of the cane. "Corporal punishment will be administered to pupils in the 5th and 6th form only under exceptional circumstances. Under no circumstances will a pupil who has reached the age of 18 be subjected to corporal punishment."
St George's School, Harare
At this Catholic (Jesuit) boys' school, corporal punishment is "not ruled out in principle" but remains the prerogative of the headmaster.
- Victoria Falls Primary School [PDF]
At this private junior school, "serious infractions are punishable with corporal punishment, administered by the Headmaster or Deputy".
- Watershed College, Marondera [PDF]
At this co-educational Christian secondary high school, corporal punishment may be administered only by the houseparents of boys' houses.