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www.corpun.com   :  Country files   :  Current school handbooks - page 6

Corporal punishment regulations of individual schools or school districts --
External links to present-day school handbooks

With comments by C. Farrell



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These links were all working in October 2014.
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blob The school handbook links are spread over six pages:

USA, States A
USA, States C-K
USA, States L-M
USA, States N-S
USA, States T-W
All other countries -- this page


¦ Anguilla ¦ Australia ¦ Bahamas, The ¦ Barbados ¦ Bermuda ¦ Botswana ¦ Ghana ¦ Guyana ¦ Jamaica ¦ Kenya ¦ Malaysia ¦ Namibia ¦ Nigeria ¦ Northern Marianas ¦ Pakistan ¦ Singapore ¦ South Africa ¦ South Korea ¦ Swaziland ¦ Tanzania ¦ Uganda ¦ United States ¦ Zambia ¦ Zimbabwe ¦


    ANGUILLA

  • Road Primary School, South Hill
    No nonsense at this establishment -- it gives a list of offences "which will result in lashes corporal punishment" given by the Principal (pictured). Students failing to attend detention assignment, too, "will receive lashes".


    AUSTRALIA

  • Central Queensland Christian College, Rockhampton
    "Corporal correction" is one of the steps here in cases of misbehaviour. It comes after "parent conference" but before suspension, and consists of "one stroke to the bottom", instrument unspecified.
        See also this June 2011 news report and this June 2012 one.

  • Chinchilla Christian School, Queensland
    At this small primary school, "corporal correction" (no details given) may be used in cases of misconduct.

  • Glenvale Christian School, Toowoomba, Queensland
    In the application for enrolment at this school, parents must sign that they authorise staff to act in loco parentis and this "shall specifically include the use of corporal punishment".


  • These Australian private schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but did not appear to say so on line when I last checked, or are not on line at all:

    Grace Christian School, Bunbury, Western Australia - see this July 2011 news item.
    Nollamara Christian Academy, Western Australia - see this July 2011 news item.


    BAHAMAS, THE

  • Bahamas Academy, Nassau
    CP (details not specified) may be used as a last resort at this school run by Seventh-day Adventists, but "certain disruptive behaviour may warrant corporal punishment as an immediate measure". Its use must be authorised by the Principal.


  • These Bahamas schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Grand Bahama Academy, Freeport -- see this March 2007 news item
    Mary, Star of the Sea Catholic School -- see this March 2007 news item
    St Paul's College, Freeport -- see this March 2007 news item
    L.W. Young Junior High School -- see this June 2008 news item


    BARBADOS

  • Student Code of Discipline
    Document produced in 2004 by the Ministry of Education for all schools. It quotes Education Regulation 18(j), which "makes provision for principals to administer corporal punishment when necessary". The document lays down three levels of offences from level 1 (tardiness, disrespect, horseplay, littering, dress code) to level 3 (assault, vandalism, forgery, arson). Corporal punishment is one of the disciplinary options at all three levels.

  • These Barbados schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Alexandra School, St Peter -- see this July 2008 news item
    Garrison Secondary School -- see this July 2008 news item
    Harrison College, St Michael -- see this Dec 2009 news item
    St Leonard's Boys' School, St Michael -- see this Oct 2009 news item
    St Lucy Secondary School -- see this July 2008 news item
    St Michael School -- see this July 2008 news item


    BERMUDA

  • Warwick Academy
    This school, "well known for its high level of discipline", has its secondary (year 7-11) handbook on line. It notes that "Students may be strapped for failure to adhere to the school's Rules of Conduct at the discretion of the Headmaster", giving no further details. In an earlier version, archived here, it was stated that CP was given for "fighting, smoking or speaking obscenities, or other serious misdemeanours" and must be administered by the Headmaster or Deputy in his office. Parents were to be informed. A male may not administer CP to a female.


    BOTSWANA

  • These Botswana schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Masunga Senior Secondary School -- see this May 2004 news item


    GHANA

  • Preset Pacesetters Institute, Madina, Greater Accra
    The detailed list of offences and punishments at this mixed-sex private secondary school has changed somewhat in the latest version. Some penalties are more severe than previously: "refusal to do or complete teacher's punishment", formerly punished with "caning in the Headmaster's office plus doing the given punishment", now brings "caning at assembly in front of the whole school plus doing the given punishment". Students who dress improperly are now required to carry out "sweeping the class room for one week plus caning", whereas "banging of chairs/tables in the classroom", previously punished with "scrubbing the toilet for one week plus caning" is now met with "payment of the cost per chair or table". A caning is also part of the consequences for "exchange of words or verbal attack on members of staff", "refusal to put on the required school belt", and "altering figures on school fee cards and receipts".

  • These Ghanaian schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Faith Montessori School, Accra -- see this Nov 2007 news item
    Mpraeso Secondary School -- see this Feb 2006 news item
    Prempeh College, Kumasi -- see these external links
    Sunyani Secondary School, Brong Ahafo -- see this July 2005 news item


    GUYANA

  • For the official CP regulations for all schools, see this April 2004 news item.


    JAMAICA

  • These Jamaican schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Charlie Smith High School, St Andrew -- see this March 2006 news item
    Kingston College -- see this October 2005 news item


    KENYA

  • Testimony SchoolTestimony School, Eldoret
    Not a handbook, but a blog by one of the leaders of this Christian school. He says the cane is still in place in the Headmaster's office. "It is not used very frequently, but it is known to be there, on hand, when needed. It assists in keeping discipline even when it is at rest."



    MALAYSIA

    Note: "SMK" means a state secondary school.

  • Ma'ahad SAS, Jengka, Pahang
    At this Islamic school hostel, penalties include 3 strokes of the cane ("Rotan tidak melebihi 3 kali") for serious offences ("Kesalahan Berat"), 2 strokes for middling offences, and one stroke for minor offences.

  • Methodist Boys' Secondary School, Kuala Lumpur
    Students who smoke here receive 10 demerit points and are also caned one, two or three strokes on a rising scale each time the offence is repeated. The penalty for chewing gum is a 10-ringgit fine plus caning. Corporal punishment may also be imposed for theft, gambling, assault, weapons, fighting, bullying, truancy, vandalism, disrespect, cheating, and obscenity, and for being late three times.

  • SKCJ Changkat Jering, Perak [DOC]
    This says, in Malay, that students will be caned if they are late five times without a good excuse. For smoking, the penalty is one stroke of the cane at the first offence, two strokes at the second, and three at the third. Caning may also be administered for stealing, blackmail, gambling, fighting, vandalism, pornography, obscenity, rubbing or hugging or interfering with female students, defiance, skipping assembly, cheating in exams, lying, and truancy.

  • SMK Agama Bandar Penawar, Kota Tinggi, Johore
    Punishments ("Hukuman") here include caning of up to two strokes ("Rotan tidak lebih 2 kali") for certain offences, and caning of 3 to 7 strokes ("Rotan 3-7 kali") for more serious ones, which is a bit odd, since the legal maximum in Malaysia is supposed to be three strokes.

  • SMK Agama Sibu, Sibu, Sarawak
    Here, students caught smoking ("rokok") are caned. The first offence brings one stroke, the second two strokes, and the third three strokes ("Kali Pertama (1 Rotan), Kali Kedua (2 Rotan), Kali Ketiga (3 Rotan)"). On the fourth time, the student is suspended. This, the page adds, is in accordance with a government circular.

  • SMK Bandar Baru, Sungai Buloh, Selangor
    This merely states (in Malay), at article 17, that caning ("dirotan") is a possible disciplinary action.

  • SMK Sungai Tapang, Kuching, Sarawak [DOC]
    Caning ("hukuman rotan") is listed here as a possible consequence for no less than 37 different offences, from smoking to truancy.

  • Sri Kuala Lumpur (Primary & Secondary) School (New URL)
    This private school reserves the right to take whatever disciplinary action it deems appropriate, which may include caning (no details given). The school's FAQs page adds that discipline is "very strong" and clarifies that corporal punishment is for boys only and is used with parental consent.

  • Yu Hua Secondary School, Kajang, Selangor
    This page states (in Malay) that a student clocking up 10 penalty points will, if male, receive one stroke of the cane, followed by another stroke at 20 penalty points. For comparison, the consequence of accumulating 50 points is expulsion.


  • These Malaysian schools also state that they use corporal punishment, but give few or no details:

    Mara Junior Science College, Kuala Klawang, Negri Sembilan [JPG]
    Sekolah Kebangsaan USJ20, Subang Jaya, Selangor
    SK Bukit Gelugor, George Town, Penang


  • These Malaysian schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    St John's Institution, Kuala Lumpur -- see these external links
    SK Dato Abdul Hamid Satu, Pasir Mas, Kelantan -- see this Feb 2005 news item
    SMJK Dindings, Perak -- see this Nov 2006 news item
    SMK Aminuddin Baki, Kuala Lumpur -- see this May 2005 news item
    SMK Jabi, Alor Star, Kedah -- see this May 2004 news item
    SMK Kepala Batas, Alor Star, Kedah -- see this Jan 2005 news item
    SMK Siburan, Kuching, Sarawak -- see this Feb 2010 news item


    NAMIBIA

  • Windhoek Gymnasium Private School
    Corporal punishment is banned in public schools in Namibia, but not in private ones, according to this all-through primary-plus-secondary private school of 1,450 students, founded in 2007. It is co-educational, but only boys receive CP. The handbook states that CP is more effective than "suspension or expulsion, or other forms of punishment that have a negative long-term effect". There is no information about what the CP consists of, but we are told that it "is only to be administered by the Rector of the Secondary School and the Principal of the Primary School". Parents may object to it in writing, "in which case alternative punishment will be enforced".
        See also this June 2013 press report about a lawsuit against teachers at the school for alleged assault.


    NIGERIA

  • These Nigerian schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Olowu Nursery, Primary and Secondary School, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item
    Yaba Model College, Surulere, Lagos -- see this Feb 2011 news item


    NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS

  • Eucon International School, Saipan
    At this Christian K-12 school, "corporal punishment (spanking) will be administered when deemed necessary". There is a demerit system: one demerit for homework not done, five demerits for insolence or dress code violations, and so on. "Upon receiving twenty demerits, the student is required to report to the administrator's office for a spanking". A note is sent to the parent, who must either sign a form approving the spanking, or come to the school and administer it him- or herself. Until one of these two things happens, the student is not allowed back into the school.
        If the student reappears with the signed form, "a reasonable number of firm strokes will be administered with a simple flat paddle" by a staff member of the same sex as the student. The paddling must be witnessed and recorded. The student will not be physically restrained; if he refuses to submit, the parent is asked to come to the office to either administer the spanking or remove the student from the school.
        At the same campus is also Eucon International College, a degree-level institution run by the same people. This handbook contains some of the same information about corporal punishment as the K-12 school book, from which large chunks of text have clearly been hastily copied and pasted. Presumably this is an error, since a college for adults wouldn't paddle its students ... would it?


    PAKISTAN

  • Cadet College Wana, South Waziristan
    At this military-style residential government school (founded 2011) for boys aged 12 to 18, routine minor physical punishments are things like "30 front rolls on grassy lawn" or "20 push ups". More serious crimes are dealt with by "extra drills". The document says that "beating shall not be used". However, the Senior Housemaster, Deputy Vice Principal or Adjutant "may conduct caning in incorrigible cases as an exception".


    ST LUCIA

  • These St Lucia schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    RC Boys School, Castries -- see this Sep 2009 news item


    SINGAPORE

    Note: School corporal punishment in Singapore is restricted by law to caning, for boys only, with a maximum of six strokes. For more information see this illustrated article.


  • Admiralty Secondary School Here there is a long list of serious offences, from skipping lessons to smoking to bringing dishonour to the school or the nation. "Any student found guilty of committing any of the above", within or outside school, "may be sent for Corrective Behaviour (CBO), caned, suspended, reported to the police or expelled".
        The second document is a notice about the National Civil Defence Cadet Corps, one of the school's co-curricular activities (CCA). It reminds members that CCA is part of the curriculum, and skipping it constitutes truancy, which may lead to caning.

  • Ahmad Ibrahim Secondary School (New URL)
    Caning (for boys), combined with detention, is a penalty here for first-time offenders in category 1 (truancy, vandalism, theft, gangsterism, gambling), and for recalcitrant offenders in category 2 (chewing gum, incorrect attire, unpunctuality, disruptive behaviour), but not category 3 (lesser offences). The equivalent for girls is extended detention.

  • Ang Mo Kio Secondary School
    For all major offences, such as smoking or fighting, boys are caned (one stroke) in class on the first occasion. If it happens again, he gets up to three strokes in the front of his class. This is a change from earlier versions, where the second or subsequent caning took place in front of the whole school. Girls get detention instead of CP (for 3 or 5 days, respectively). The offender will also receive counselling. The school's decision on punishments is final. For lesser offences there is a merit/demerit points system. All students start off with 75 merit points. If your points fall to 55, and you are a boy, you get the cane in front of your class.

  • Anglican High School
    This school has a demerit points system. Caning is administered when five or more demerit points have been accumulated. "For the very serious offences, parents will be informed immediately unless there is corporal punishment involved where parents/guardians will be subsequently informed of the action."


  • ACS Barker Road promotional shot Anglo-Chinese School (Barker Road) [DOC]
    This all-boys secondary school, whose main front page is here, is part of the same "family" as ACSI (see next item) but unlike its sister school it is within the state sector. The document linked above is a list of crimes and punishments. Caning is listed as a possibility for all except the most trivial category of offences.
        See also this May 2009 news item about the public caning of three senior boys at this school for bullying.


  • Anglo-Chinese School (Independent)
    This highly academic, award-winning, private Methodist boys' secondary school doesn't currently put its mainstream disciplinary details on its website, although its former principal is on record as saying that "we have corporal punishment for some serious offences" and that if parents do not approve of this, "then they should not have put their child in this school" -- see this July 2001 news item.

    ACSI (in yellow) vs. St Andrews (in dark blue). Two traditional boys' schools that play rugby and use the cane.

        The document linked above is much more specialised, aimed at the parents of prospective students (including girls in this hitherto all-male institution), for a new special stream to take the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) in years 5 and 6. Year 5 in Singapore is normally the year in which a student turns 17, though in some circumstances the age could be higher. This is equivalent to "A" levels, and all these students are, in British terms, sixth-formers.
        Go to pages 46 to 48 for the "academic honesty policy" concerning cheating, plagiarism, collusion, fabricating data, and the like, on the part of these 16-to-18-year-olds. At page 49 the penalties for contravening this policy are listed, including, in very serious cases or when other disciplinary means have been exhausted, "caning (only for male students)". This "will be conducted in the principal's office, classroom or during school assembly". Furthermore, "all students who have been caned will be required to attend counselling sessions arranged by the school."
        I suspect the reason the school is emphasising the point is that this briefing document is for parents of potential new students coming into ACSI at the year 5 level from outside, who, unlike the parents of existing ACSI students, might not be expected to be familiar with the school's strong CP tradition.

  • Assumption English School
    At this mixed-sex Christian secondary school, caning is a possible consequence for wilful latecoming, loitering, skipping classes, truancy, cheating, defiance, persistently repeating an offence, lying, theft, forgery, arson, vandalism, weapons, smoking, alcohol, fighting, unlawful assembly, outrage of modesty, causing hurt, gambling, extortion, pornography, substance abuse, and use of banned items.

  • Bedok Green Secondary School
    Here, boys who commit serious offences "will be caned".
        See also this Oct 2005 document from Christ Methodist Church, which includes an article (pages 4 to 5) by Bedok Green's then Discipline Master, who reported that his job was "very draining and extremely tiring". His duties included "carrying out corporal punishment such as public caning". He rather gives the impression that all canings at this school are administered in public.

  • Bedok South Secondary School
    Male students who break the rules may be caned. Female students who break the rules may be required to carry out Corrective Work Orders in lieu of caning.

  • Bedok Town Secondary School  (Alternative link)
    Here there is a detailed list of offences and consequences. Failure to attend detention class brings one stroke of the cane plus two more days' detention class. One stroke, plus 3 demerit points, is also the penalty for such things as leaving school without permission; for bullying and smoking, it is one stroke plus 5 demerit points, with two strokes and another five points for each repeat offence. Most serious of all are assault, gangsterism, weapons and theft, for which the penalty is two strokes on the first offence plus 8 demerit points.
        In addition, a separate demerit points system page  (Alternative link) reveals that accumulations of demerit points themselves result in canings in addition to the canings for the original offences. Thus, on reaching 30 demerit points, the student receives one additional stroke of the cane. At 50 points he gets two strokes, and the parent must come to the school. So, if a student commits a two-stroke offence which also takes him over the 50-point level, he presumably gets four strokes all at once on that occasion. Curiously there is no mention of what happens to misbehaving girls, even though this is a mixed school.

  • Bedok View Secondary School
    Caning is for serious offences. After caning, parents are informed. "Female students are not to be caned in any circumstances."

  • Bishan Park Secondary School
    "Suspension and/or caning" is the penalty here for persistent serious misbehaviour.
        See also this Oct 2002 news item and this June 2003 follow-up about the public caning of a 17-year-old student at this school.

  • Boon Lay Garden Primary School
    Caning (for boys only) is used here "if a pupil is unrepentant".

  • Bukit Batok Secondary School
    Here, boys are "liable for caning" for the usual list of serious offences including vandalism, fighting, bullying, gambling, gangsterism, smoking, cheating, defiance, skipping lessons, and truancy; and for a fourth latecoming onwards. Girls who commit these infractions are liable for suspension.
        There is an interesting note in respect of smoking. In Singapore this is a criminal offence for those under 18, and this brings referral to the outside authorities, often involving a fine, as well as a caning in school. Students over 18 who smoke in school, or outside school in school uniform, are not breaking the law but these rules spell out that they will (if male) still be caned as a matter of school policy.
        See also this Aug 2002 news item about how Bukit Batok had been at a low ebb but was turned around by a new principal "enforcing caning more vigorously", with a dramatic improvement in the school's results.

  • Canberra Secondary School (New URL)
    Here, for tobacco, defiance, vandalism, dishonesty, and other serious offences, boys get one stroke of the cane while girls must serve three detentions. Caning may also be meted out for being late 6 times in two terms.

  • Chong Fu Primary School
    "The Principal has the authority to administer corporal punishment" (page 14). This power may be delegated to a senior colleague.

  • Chung Cheng High School (Main)
    In addition to the usual list of things like smoking, fighting, cheating and vandalism, offences which may warrant caning here include "displaying a complete disregard for authority" and "any offence detrimental to the good name and image of the school".

  • Chung Cheng High School (Yishun)
    Canings are administered here for major offences, including smoking or possession of cigarettes, gambling, cheating, fighting, bullying, vandalism and theft.

  • Clementi Woods Secondary School (New URL)
    At this school, caning is one of the disciplinary actions taken for "serious offences" such as smoking, vandalism, fighting and bullying.

  • Compassvale Secondary School
    Boys caught smoking here receive "two strokes of public caning". Pupils are also "liable to be caned" for defiance, fighting, bullying, cheating, drug abuse, forgery, gambling, vandalism and truancy.

  • Damai Secondary School
    This school seems to have abandoned its former demerit points system and no longer specifies numbers of strokes for difference offences. It now simply states that the principal or vice-principal may initiate caning for the usual list of serious offences.
        This separate page adds the peculiarly specific information that students who loiter in uniform after school in the void-deck areas of Bedok Reservoir Road (presumably a local den of iniquity) may be caned. On this further page we learn that a caning will also be awarded to a boy who is late to school for the fifth time.

  • Deyi Secondary School (New URL)
    "Severe" punishments here are caning, suspension and expulsion, to be applied for "gross misconduct" such as vandalism, smoking, insolence, truancy and stealing.

  • Dunearn Secondary School
    Caning is a response to serious offences such as defiance, truancy, skipping lessons, bullying, smoking, cheating, fighting and vandalism. Parents are informed after the punishment has been carried out.

  • Dunman High School
    Caning is administered to male students for serious breaches of the Code of Conduct. Only the Principal or staff authorised by the Principal may cane.

  • East Spring Secondary School
    Male students caught smoking, or possessing cigarettes, tobacco or lighters, "are liable to be caned in school". In a provision that I have not seen anywhere else, so are those merely found in the smokers' company. Female smokers are suspended in lieu of caning.

  • East View Secondary School
    This is a list of examples of "criminal acts" and "serious misconduct". For boys, "caning, counseling and parents to be notified" is the punishment for a first and second offence. On the third offence, the offender may be suspended. The equivalent penalties for girls are 5 days' detention (first offence) and 2 days' in-school suspension (second offence). For lesser offences there is a system of demerit points. Uniform and hairstyle offences  (Alternative link) are not normally caneable here, unless they escalate beyond a third offence, in which case they are deemed to constitute "defiance", which counts as "serious misconduct" and thus attracts a caning. However, upper secondary boys (aged 14 to 17), who at this school graduate to long trousers at the beginning of the year in which they turn 15, are made to suffer the embarrassment of spending a full week at school wearing lower secondary (short pants) uniform if they commit a third "attire offence".
        See also this Powerpoint presentation, which states (slide 57) that "errant students will be dealt with severely through caning, in house suspension, home suspension".

  • Fairfield Methodist Secondary School Boys who commit a fourth minor offence in a row receive 3 demerit points and one stroke of the cane; girls get five days of "isolation after school" instead of the caning. Further demerit points accumulate for further offences, with another caning (two strokes this time), or ten days of isolation for girls, at the 8th offence. At the 9th offence, both sexes get one week's ISS and the pupil must sign a behaviour contract.
        As at several other Singapore schools, a student's first caning (per term, presumably) takes place in the office, his second in front of his class, and his third in front of the school at morning assembly. So much for the accumulation of minor offences. For more serious offences there is a detailed list of consequences. Thus, a boy will receive 5 demerit points plus one stroke of the cane for cheating in tests or truancy. For vandalism, bullying, gambling or smoking, the penalty is 10 demerit points plus three strokes of the cane.

  • Fuchun Primary School
    "Depending on the severity of the offence, caning will be carried out by the Principal or Vice-Principal, in the office, classroom or during the assembly in the hall".

  • Fuchun Secondary School
    Caning here is a consequence for smoking, violence, bullying, defiance and disrespect, vandalism, persistent latecoming, truancy, theft, and outrage of modesty. For cheating and repeated serious offences, there is public caning.
        See also the April 2007 issue of School-Home Link
    , the school's newsletter for parents, which warns that students making irresponsible use of mobile phones -- such as taking pictures or videos with them on school premises -- will be caned (boys) or given a corrective work order (girls) and suspended.

  • Gan Eng Seng Secondary School
    Pupils start with 50 points at the beginning of each year and can earn merit points for good deeds. Demerit points are subtracted for differing offences according to a detailed scale. At the end of each term, a student with no demerit points and who has not been caned earns two bonus points. Public caning may be ordered by the principal and/or Discipline Committee for serious offences, notably those which tarnish the school's image.

  • Greenridge Sec. SchoolGreenridge Secondary School
    Here is a list of offences and punishments. For such offences as being late and deliberately avoiding being booked, leaving school without permission, truanting, missing detention, rudeness, serious disobedience, smoking, cheating and forgery, and for a second offence of skipping lessons, boys are caned and girls are given "long detention". For the most serious crimes, such as fighting, gangsterism, stealing and vandalism, the caning may be delivered in public.
        See also this May 2004 news item.

  • Greenview Secondary School (New URL)
    Here, "Caning (public or private)" is a punishment for skipping detention, truancy, defiance, possession of banned items, smoking, gambling, theft, fighting and gangsterism.

  • Griffiths Primary School
    Caning here is listed as a penalty for all serious offences, such as assault, gambling, vandalism and theft. "Caning will be done as and when necessary with the Principal's consent."

  • Henry Park Primary School
    "Caning will be administered if necessary to recalcitrant cases by the Principal."

  • Hillgrove Secondary School
    At this mixed neighbourhood school, caning, suspension or expulsion are the penalties for major offences or repeated minor ones.

  • Hong Kah Secondary School
    Here, the punishment for being late to school (but still in time for curriculum hours) a fourth time in a term is one stroke of the cane (boys) and one day's external detention (girls). For the fifth time it is 2 strokes for boys and two days' detention for girls. This is an increase in severity from the previous version, where caning came into play only on the sixth tardy per term. Earlier still, it was only on the 10th, so the policy has been getting steadily more strict with each revision of the rules. Now, on the sixth and subsequent tardy, pupils are suspended. A more serious offence is arriving not only late for school hours but after the start of curriculum hours. For this, boys get 2 strokes of the cane even on the first occasion and the same on every subsequent occasion. Girls in the same position are made to wear a "corrective vest".
        For failing to submit assignments on a third or subsequent occasion, boys receive one stroke of the cane and girls get two days' community service. Boys receive two strokes for smoking, in or out of school (girls: 3 days' suspension). Caning (3 strokes) and counselling may be administered for truancy. "The school will administer caning (for all serious and repeated offences) on the day the offence was committed, with or without parents' consent. Counselling will be provided after the caning is carried out."

  • Hua Yi Secondary School
    Here, caning is one of the consequences for serious offences such as gambling, theft, defiance, fighting and vandalism. Unusually it is not mentioned as a penalty for smoking, which probably accounts for at least one-third of all Singapore secondary school canings, but for which the only punishment stipulated here is suspension.

  • Hwa Chong Institution
    This school was formed by the merger of the former (boys-only) Chinese High School with the Hwa Chong Junior College, and is thus now an all-through institution combining the secondary and pre-university levels. It has a reputation for traditional values, exemplified by the relatively unusual rule that male students may not wear long trousers until secondary 4 (age c.16), a year later than at most Singapore schools.
        Caning is described as "a last resort after all avenues to correct the students have been exhausted", and may be administered only by the principal or the Discipline Master. The possession or use of cigarettes "may result in immediate suspension or caning or both". "Uncivilized behaviour" (abuse, defiance, obscenity), "integrity-related offences" (cheating, stealing, lying) and "criminal offences" (arson, vandalism, fighting, weapons, pornography) are all liable to be punished with "not more than 5 strokes of the cane" -- a surprising number to specify, given that the legal maximum is 6 strokes anyway.

  • Hwa Chong International School
    This is a sister school of Hwa Chong Institution (see previous item) and on the same campus, but is a relatively new (2005) elite private school for (mainly expat) high-fliers of both sexes, which now offers nothing but the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP) for ages 12 to 18 inclusive. Boys are caned for "persistent misbehaviour".
        "Caning/suspension" is also specifically mentioned under the "Demerit points" section of the document for vandalism, theft, bullying and defiance. An accumulation of 10 demerit points for minor offences in one semester also triggers an automatic caning in the case of male students.

  • Juying Secondary School
    Here, "pupils will be caned and/or suspended" for tobacco possession, bullying, theft and defiance.

  • Montfort Junior School [PPT]
    See slide 21 of this Powerpoint presentation, which says that caning is one of the consequences for bullying, though apparently not for other serious offences.

  • Montfort Secondary School
    This Roman Catholic boys' school states that caning, as decided by the Discipline Committee, is one of the possible consequences for a long list of offences.
        See also this July 2002 news item about an occasion on which three senior students were caned in front of the whole school.
        See also the school's blog for "Puff the Magic Dragon", which the evidently highly eccentric but much-loved principal sang as he caned two boys in front of the school for smoking.

  • Muhammadiyah Welfare Home
    Not an ordinary school, but a home for Muslim juvenile offenders aged under 16 at the time of admission. Technically it is an "approved school" (some Singapore legislation still uses the old British terminology). For minor infringements there is a demerit points system leading to extra daily chores; then forfeiture of weekend leave. After that comes caning, presumably for boys only, although that is not spelled out.

  • Nan Chiau High School
    Caning (no details provided) is available at this school for Level 2 offences (including being more than 10 minutes late, defiance, disruptive behaviour) and Level 3 offences (truancy, forgery, vandalism, smoking) but not for Level 1 (consumption of food outside canteen, improper attire). Pupils may also be caned for accumulating 21 demerit points.

  • Naval Base Secondary School
    On the sixth tardy per semester, boys are caned while girls get in-house suspension.

  • Ngee Ann Secondary School
    A long list of detailed rules here, and clearly a strict regime ("I must not put on fanciful spectacle frames .... I must tuck in my T-shirt neatly ..."). On page 4, under "Offences and Consequences", we read: "I may be caned for my offence (Boys only)".

  • Northbrooks Secondary School
    This school lists littering, bad manners, dishonesty, bullying, eating in class, use of electronic devices, gambling, stealing, fighting, smoking, vandalism and substance abuse among the offences for which caning is a possible consequence.
        This presentation to parents adds (slides 28 and 29) that caning is also a punishment for truancy and latecoming.

  • Park View Primary School
    Caning is one of the consequences for bullying at this school.

  • Peicai Secondary School
    More details here now than previously: male students "will face corporal punishment" if they defy teachers, steal, fight, smoke or bully, or have tattoos, among other things.

  • Peirce Secondary School
    At this school, caning (no details supplied) is a punishment for a wide range of offences, usually in addition to detention and "home involvement". These extracts were archived (2002) from the school's previous website; its current discipline page doesn't list specific consequences.

  • Pei Tong Primary School
    For "very serious offences", boys receive two strokes of the cane on the palm in the Principal's Office on the first occasion. The second time, it is the same but in the classroom. On the third offence, the penalty is "2 strokes of cane on the buttocks in the school hall during assembly". All these are in addition to (not instead of) suspension.

  • Ping Yi Secondary School
    These rules state that one of the possible consequences for violations of the code of conduct is "Corporal punishment (for boys only)".
        See also this Sep 2006 news item, which states that Ping Yi will continue to use the cane even though it has adopted a "restorative practices" scheme for certain wrongdoings.

  • Pioneer Secondary School
    Boys are caned here for defiance and rudeness, cheating, forgery, theft, vandalism, assault, fighting, smoking, gambling, drugs, and a fourth offence of truancy, among other things. First offenders receive one stroke, but "two or more" strokes are imposed for subsequent offences. For serious offences, such as bullying, gambling or pornography, the punishment is delivered "in public". Other canings are "generally conducted in the office or classroom", but the fact of their taking place is announced to all students "to advise the school population on [sic] the offence committed".
        See also this June 1999 news item about a 16-year-old who, with five other boys, was publicly caned in assembly. They received two strokes each on the buttocks with "a thick and long cane".

  • Punggol Secondary School
    Here, offences such as theft, vandalism, gangsterism and truancy "carry mandatory caning during the school assembly". These are referred to as "serious offences specified by the Ministry of Education", which together with the word "mandatory" slightly gives the impression that the government actually requires these offences to be punished with public caning, but that can't be so, because not all Singapore schools cane in public, and there are a few that don't cane at all. Anyway, once caned, a boy who commits further serious offences may be suspended or expelled.
        See also Referral procedures for major offences, where we learn that the parents of the offending student must come with their son to a meeting with the Discipline Master, at which they will be informed that he must make a public apology and will be publicly caned.
        See also this 2009 newsletter from the Principal, announcing stricter enforcement of the rules with strong deterrence, including caning.

  • Queensway Secondary School
    At this school, "depending on the gravity of the offence, the Principal may decide to cane the errant student in class or in the hall".

  • Raffles Institution
    This fearsomely academic private secondary school for boys is the oldest, most famous and most elite school in Singapore, sometimes known as Singapore's Eton. (Lee Kwan Yew attended it, and was caned there, in the 1930s.)
        The current rules state that "serious misdemeanours", which include smoking, cheating, bullying, truancy, theft, vandalism, as well as arrogance or impertinence to a staff member, "can be punishable by caning".
        See also this Sep 2005 news item about a public caning at the school.

  • Riverside Secondary School (New URL)
    Here, boys may be caned for any of the traditional serious offences from the first time onwards. For truancy and skipping lessons, the cane comes out at the third offence, and for latecoming on the sixth occasion (per term, presumably). Girls get "two days of corrective work order" in lieu of caning, which sounds at least as bad, and certainly a great deal more time-consuming.

  • Rosyth Primary School
    Slide 30 of this presentation for the parents of new students tells us that caning is used for "recalcitrant" discipline cases, but only in the upper school.

  • St Andrew's Junior School [PPT]
    A Powerpoint slide presentation on Pupil Management from this boys-only primary school, mentioning (see slide 8) that caning is one of the consequences for misbehaviour, but giving no details.
        See also Letter to Parents, August 2008 (scroll down to "Discipline Issues") in which the Principal notes that the school is very reluctant to publicly cane boys from the lower primary level.

  • St Andrew's Secondary School
    This 150-year-old Anglican all-boys establishment is highly regarded for its sporting trophies as well as its academic results. With its passion for rugby and cricket, and more than a hint of what used to be called "muscular Christianity", it probably comes as close as any to the authentic ethos of a traditional British boys' school, encapsulated in its splendid School Song:

    St Andrew's Secondary (in blue) vs. Anglo-Chinese School (Independent) (in yellow), two traditional rugby-playing boys' schools where the cane is used when necessary.
    [...] Foes in plenty we shall meet,
    Hearts courageous scorn defeat;
    So we press with eager feet,
    Up and On!
    Ever onward to the fight,
    Ever upward to the Light,
    Ever true to GOD and RIGHT,
    Up and On!
    Up Boys! truest fame
    Lies in high endeavour;
    Play the game! keep the flame
    Burning brightly ever!
        St Andrew's is the only school in Singapore which says that it deploys caning on the hand for lesser offences - unknown at most secondary schools -- as well as the more familiar practice of a hard caning across the boy's buttocks for more serious ones, or for repeated minor ones. According to informed sources, the first kind is fairly lightly administered, often on the spot, whereas the second kind leaves weals under the shorts or trousers.
        The distinction between the two types of caning is made more explicit in the current version of the conduct rules and consequences. Unlike an earlier version, in which specific penalties were separately listed for each offence, there is now a demerit system. Three or four demerit points bring a hand-caning, five or more a buttock-caning. However, the rules do still spell out that some infractions such as smoking (4 demerit points) will result in "caning on the buttock" from the second offence onwards.
        In the case of drug abuse and theft (5 demerit points), it is stated that this discipline is carried out in front of the school. For bullying and fighting (5 demerit points), the caning is delivered in class for a first offence and in public for subsequent offences. A public buttock-caning is automatic in a case where the police are involved, even if the offence is committed away from school. A repeat police case brings public caning plus suspension, or public caning plus expulsion.
        Also, if students are late to school five or more times in a term, "caning may be administered".
        See also news items from Oct 2003 and June 2009 about canings for bullying at the school, and this Jan 2008 news item about two St Andrews 14-year-olds publicly caned for trying to take a photograph up their lady teacher's skirt; and see this May 2011 report on a private caning administered to two boys for getting into a public dispute on Facebook.

  • St Anthony's Primary School (New URL)
    Here, "Corporal punishment (e.g. caning) may be meted out to a repeat offender or in a situation where there is intent to cause hurt".

  • St Gabriel's Primary School for Boys  (Alternative link)
    A very specific list of offences and their punishments. Caning is apparently the only available punishment for quite a number of serious offences, with the number of strokes specified in each case, either one (e.g. extortion) or two (e.g. substance abuse). An earlier document, now apparently gone, stated that for repeat offenders, a maximum of 3 strokes is given either in the classroom or on the stage, presumably in front of the whole school. All canings are followed by counselling.

  • St Gabriel's Secondary School This is a Roman Catholic boys' school with a strict reputation.
        In lower secondary (sec 1 and sec 2), the cane is used in "serious disciplinary cases" (see slide 5). Slide 6 adds that students who arrive late 10 times get one stroke of the cane.
        At the upper secondary level (sec 3 to sec 5), students who arrive late six times get two strokes of the cane (see slide 9). Caning is also the standard punishment for serious disciplinary cases in general, preceded and followed by counselling (see slide 7).
        See also this entry in the diary site of one of its co-curricular activities, the police cadet corps, which mentions that students who absent themselves from training will be caned.
        According to informed sources, miscreants routinely receive either one or two vigorous strokes across the seat of the dark blue uniform trousers (more for more serious offences) in a private ceremony in the office; public caning here is thought to be relatively rare.
        Students of the school have made two light-hearted video clips to demonstrate the modus operandi, this one for lower secondary and this one for upper secondary, from which comes the still picture at right, showing the "hands on seat of chair, feet wide apart" stance the recipient is required to adopt.

  • St Hilda's Secondary School
    Here, "Caning/In-school suspension" (the latter presumably for girls) is a penalty for truancy, repeated poor classroom conduct, misuse of technology, and a seventh or subsequent latecoming. For the usual list of serious offences (smoking, bullying, fighting, vandalism and so on), boys "may be" caned at the first offence and "will be" caned at the second offence.

  • St Patrick's School (New URL)
    Students at this strict all-boys Roman Catholic secondary school, which has about 1,500 students aged from 12 to 18, are called Patricians. The rules state that "Patricians found in possession of cigarettes and/or lighters/matches will be caned". There is anecdotal evidence that many other offences are also frequently punished with the cane, which is a long-standing tradition at "St Pat's" -- see this external link. In most cases CP is meted out privately in the General Office, according to informed sources, and consists of two to three hard strokes across the seat of the white uniform trousers from the Vice-Principal or either of the two Discipline Masters. Also, a typical morning sees latecomers reporting to the office for immediate punishment (one stroke) before going to class. Public caning and class caning are said to be much less common, but not unknown.

  • Sembawang Primary School
    There is a list of offences which are "considered serious enough to merit corporal punishment" (smoking, bullying, cheating, theft, etc.).

  • Sembawang Secondary School
    This a new discipline document for Sembawang Sec, more detailed than the earlier slide presentation. "Writing offensive web-blogs" [sic] is defined as an offence in its own right, for which the penalty is "public apology, counselling and caning/suspension". Repeat offences bring "Caning/suspension (increased severity)". Caning/suspension, or in some cases warning/caning/suspension, is also the consequence for a first offence of, among other things, chewing gum, defiance, loitering in public places, truancy, forgery, theft, bullying and pornography. In all these cases except pornography, the same but with increased severity is prescribed for repeat offences. For pornography only, any subsequent offence is reported to the police. For a first offence of smoking or possession of tobacco products, boys receive 2 strokes of the cane while girls get two days' suspension. These numbers increase to "more than two" on a second or subsequent occasion. For fighting, boys get caning and suspension; for girls it is just suspension. Caning may also be administered for a minor offence committed 3 times or more.

  • Seng Kang Secondary School (highlight the whole page to read text)  (Alternative link)
    "Rules and consequences" sets out very specific penalties for particular offences: caning is used for smoking, drugs or alcohol, and "serious offences" (fighting, gangsterism, vandalism, dishonesty, etc.) For repeated offences, not only does the number of strokes rise but the punishment becomes progressively less private. Thus, a first offence of smoking brings one stroke in the principal's office; a second offence, two strokes in class; and a third offence, three strokes in front of the whole school. Offending girls, who legally may not be caned, must instead wear a "red vest" for a given number of days.

  • Shuqun Secondary School
    Caning is one of the penalties for all 16 serious offences listed, except truancy. It may also be meted out for the following "appearance" offences if repeated: hair coloured or too long, wearing shorts or pants that are too large, wearing coloured contact lenses.

  • Tanjong Katong Secondary School
    Here, serious offences such as visiting cyber cafes, intimacy, smoking and truancy "may lead to a student being severely punished", which "could be in the form of caning, suspension and even expulsion from the school".

  • Teck Whye Secondary School (New URL)
    Boys get one stroke of the cane for a 7th classroom offence (previously tenth) and for a fourth arrival at class more than 5 minutes after the bell. The previous demerit points system seems to have been abolished, but caning (one stroke) is still the punishment for boys who commit forgery, dishonesty, "silent defiance", skipping lessons and truancy. For vandalism, "open defiance", bullying, smoking, drugs, assault, gangsterism and other major offences, the penalty is three strokes of the cane. Girls must undergo an equivalent number of days' suspension.

  • Temasek Primary School
    "The school will administer caning to the boys should they commit serious and repeated offences." Girls get unspecified "appropriate disciplinary action".

  • Victoria School
    Liable to be caned: Victoria School boysAt this prestigious boys' secondary school, canings are meted out for a first instance of playing truant, smoking, theft, shoplifting, and other serious offences, and for a repeat instance of some less serious ones, such as "inappropriate hairstyle" and "sneaking into school after morning assembly".
        According to anecdotal evidence, students are made to change into PE kit (illustrated at right) for caning, and a broad leather strap is placed round the waist to protect the kidneys from a mis-stroke. However, informed sources suggest that caning is a good deal less frequent at Victoria than at some other Singapore boys' schools. As a matter of fact, the school abolished the cane altogether for a period as long ago as the 1960s, but the results were not satisfactory and the penalty was restored.

  • West Spring Secondary School
    Some years ago this school advertised itself as having a no-cane policy, but that has been decisively reversed and, according to informed sources, it is now very much a caning school. The link above is to a presentation for new students and their parents. Students are expected to be "ladies and gentlemen"; there are "strict rules with clear consequences" with, "for gentlemen, caning meted for serious offences" (page 8). Caning is specifically mentioned for absences and latecoming (page 9) and failing to attend co-curricular activities (page 10).
        See also the "Discipline framework" chart, which includes "cane" as well as "carrot". The carrot is metaphorical but the cane is not.

  • Woodgrove Secondary School
    This gives a long list of serious offences to which "public caning" may be a response. There is no mention of private (office) caning.

  • Xinmin Secondary School
    Caning is one of the consequences for Category C (the most serious) offences, such as smoking, truancy, vandalism and getting tattoos. In addition, there is now a demerit points system, and "Boys who accumulate 20 or more demerit points may be caned".

  • Yishun Town Secondary School
    Here, boys receive "immediate caning" for gambling, smoking, fighting, bullying, vandalism, theft, pornography, abusive language or gestures, defiance and rudeness, and infringement of internet rules and etiquette.

  • Yu Neng Primary School
    Corporal punishment is administered for serious offences. It "will be in the form of caning which may be carried out in the Principal's office, the classroom or in the hall during Assembly." Parents are informed but evidently not necessarily consulted.

  • Yusof Ishak Secondary School [DOC]
    Here, caning (for boys) is a punishment for truancy, going home early without permission, repeated latecoming, weapons, pornography, alcohol, smoking, defiance, rudeness, theft, vandalism, gambling, fighting, bullying, indecency, gangsterism, and repeated minor offences. Girls receive detention in equivalent cases. If the problem persists, students are suspended.

  • Zhonghua Secondary School
    "Students who committed an offence that required corporal punishment will be awarded a 'Fair' grade for that semester."


  • These Singapore schools also state that they use caning for male students, but give few or no details:

    Ai Tong School (primary)
    Ang Mo Kio Primary School
    Balestier Hill Secondary School
    Cedar Primary School
    Chestnut Drive Secondary School
    Chua Chu Kang Primary School
    Commonwealth Secondary School
    First Toa Payoh Secondary School
    Greendale Secondary School
    Greenridge Primary School (New URL)
    Kheng Cheng School (primary)
    Kranji Secondary School
    Loyang Secondary School
    Mayflower Secondary School
    Swiss Cottage Secondary School
    Teck Ghee Primary School
    Unity Secondary School
    Westwood Secondary School


  • These Singapore schools are also known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line:

    - Pasir Ris Secondary School -- see this Jan 2006 news item about a public caning at the school
    - Siglap Secondary School -- see this April 2006 news item about a 17-year-old student given two strokes of the cane in front of the school
    - Yuan Ching Secondary School -- see this April 2007 news item reporting that the school administered 80 canings a year between 1999 and 2001 but had since got the number down to about 10 per year.


    SOUTH AFRICA

  • Bay Christian School, Port Elizabeth  (Alternative link)
    This is very odd. This school was not opened until 1999, by which time corporal punishment had already been outlawed in South Africa, for both public and private schools. Subsequent court cases have reaffirmed that Christian schools do not have any right to exemption from this rule, and yet here is one of them openly stating that "corporal correction is used in extreme cases as we believe it is a directive given by God".

  • Emmanuel Private School, Vanderbijlpark
    "Biblical correction with the rod (paddle) is necessary for moral violations", says this K-12 Christian school. These include swearing, lying, fighting, and disrespect to staff, "or repeated detentions without a change in behaviour". Since schools are not allowed to use CP, the parents, preferably the father, must administer the paddling at home. A "Biblical correction form" outlining the offence is sent home with the miscreant student. It must be signed by both parents and the student, and returned to the school.

  • Strand Christian Academy, Western Cape
    For serious offences, including fighting, defiance and swearing, or upon receiving a fourth detention, the punishment here is "Biblical correction". Since CP is illegal at school, a Correction Report is sent home with the student, whose father must administer the spanking that same evening. The father must complete the rest of the form to certify that the punishment has been delivered, and return it to the school. If the parents dispute the need for a spanking, the student is suspended. After three "Biblical corrections", the parents must attend a meeting at the school. If behaviour does not improve, expulsion may follow.


    SOUTH KOREA

  • International Christian School, Uijongbu
    "When minor problems arise, the teacher will administer the necessary discipline. At the elementary level, the student may be sent to principal, and a spanking may be used as discipline." Parents who are opposed to CP must work out a behavioural contract with the school.

  • Seoul Christian School
    Application form for this K-12 school. "The administration reserves the right to use corporal punishment when necessary."


    SWAZILAND

  • These Swaziland schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Mhlatane High School, Piggs Peak -- see news reports from October 2005 and June 2013
    Mhubhe High School, Manzini region ("Pupils weep for leaving teacher", Weekend Observer, Mbabane, 18 Feb 2006, not on line)
    Salesian High School, Manzini -- see this Aug 2013 news item
    St Francis High School, Mbabane -- see this Oct 2008 news item
    Sibuyeni Primary school, near Manzini -- see this May 2010 news item
    Somnjalose High School, Ezulwini Valley -- see this April 2010 news item
    Swazi National High School, Matsapha -- see this Jan 2012 news item
    Velebantfu High School, New Haven -- see this Feb 2009 news item


    TANZANIA

  • Patandi Primary School
    Information for temporary voluntary teachers. The headteacher is allowed to give four strokes of the cane for certain offences.

  • These Tanzania schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Kahororo Secondary School, Kagera -- see this Sep 2004 news item


    UGANDA

  • These Uganda schools are known to use corporal punishment, but do not appear to say so on line, or are not on line at all:

    Bethany High School, Naalya -- see this April 2005 news item



    ZAMBIA

  • Excellence Christian Academy, Kabwe
    When corporal correction is warranted, a maximum of five firm strokes will be administered "using a simple, flat paddle for the girls and an appropriate rod for the boys".



    ZIMBABWE


  • Falcon College, Esigodini
    At this boys' Christian secondary boarding school, "only the headmaster, deputy headmaster and housemasters may administer corporal punishment and even they need to document that procedure and have a witness present".
        See also this more recent document New!, which states that discipline "is an area we pride ourselves in ... We still use corporal punishment at the Headmaster and Housemaster level".
        See also this newsletter and this one, both mentioning cases where canings have been administered.

  • Midlands Christian College, Gweru [PDF] New!
    Application form for this co-educational secondary school. Parents have to sign "I accept corporal punishment for my child, administered according to the Ministry of Education's policy and procedures".

  • Peterhouse Boys' School, Marondera (New URL) This is an Anglican boys' secondary boarding school in the English tradition. For many years the school's website said only that "Corporal punishment is administered only by the Rector, Senior Master and housemasters". Now more specific information has been added to reflect the stated belief of the fairly new Rector (= headmaster) in "strong and clear codes of discipline" and his view that "corporal punishment should be used for serious breaches of school discipline".
        For a first offence of smoking outside the school, a student receives three strokes of the cane. For a second such offence, and a first offence of smoking inside the buildings, he "will" (not may) "be given six strokes of the cane" and then required to go home for a week to undergo counselling. He and his parents then have to attend a meeting with the Rector at which a formal final warning is given. Any subsequent smoking brings expulsion from the school. Supplying tobacco to other students also attracts a six-stroke caning.
        The alcohol policy is similar: for a first offence the student is given three strokes of the cane and gated for a week. The second offence brings six strokes plus counselling plus "final warning" meeting, as with smoking. Again, supplying alcohol to others is also a six-stroke offence.

  • St George's St George's School, Harare (New URL)
    At this Catholic (Jesuit) boys' school, corporal punishment is "not ruled out in principle" but remains the prerogative of the headmaster.



  • Victoria Falls Primary School [PDF] New!
    At this private junior school, "serious infractions are punishable with corporal punishment, administered by the Headmaster or Deputy".

  • Watershed College, Marondera [PDF]
    At this co-educational Christian secondary high school, corporal punishment may be administered only by the houseparents of boys' houses.


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